Evaluate Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory in a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper. Address the following:
Explain three contributions that Kohlberg made to our understanding of moral development.
We have laid a considerable focus on Import Substitution. This is because the most critical consequence of it is bringing the domestic market up to internationally competitive standards, without being trampled upon by big players in the international market, when the domestic industry is in the nascent stage. As we have seen in the case of domestic industries being crushed in Sub-Saharan Africa by China in textiles and electronics, mainly because it is cheap. Once an international quality standard is set in the country, the import substitution can turn into ‘exports’, which is what we have been building up to. Export of Primary Goods leads to the country gaining access to foreign exchange, as has been discussed before*. The biggest advantage for a country to gain foreign exchange is to be less vulnerable to fluctuations. As has been the case with Brazil, in it’s coffee export. In October 1962, the price in the US was 22.18 cents, 32.73 in August 1963 and 49.85 in 1964. Cocoa prices also showed comparable fluctuations. “For a country projecting a development program, and counting on a particular level of foreign-exchange income from its primary-product exports, downward movements in price can be catastrophic. The problem tends to be compounded in that at the very moment a less-developed country loses income because of price declines, its external credit position also suffers and foreign loans are hard to obtain. When prices increase (as they did by an average of 5 percent in 1964 over 1963), the increased income tends to encourage overproduction.” (Weintraub, S., 1965, 6) This foreign exchange that is gained should be invested in the industries, which have maximum ‘linkages’ and ‘spill-overs’ to other industries, and are also ‘labour-light industries’. Linkages between sectors, as suggested by Hirschman in the theory of unbalanced growth, help in developing industry through ‘backward’ or ‘forward linkages, where one the production in one industry is directly tied to or ‘linked’ to another industry. Linkages are cause of the ‘spillover effect’ i.e. a Secondary effect as result of a Primary effect. Using backward linkages is the most appropriate way to produce ‘spillover’ for late developing countries. (Javorcik, 2004) In backward linkage, the ‘raw material’ is provided by local suppliers, and therefore there is no dependence on imports and primary domestic industry is given a boost. As used in the Readymade Garment export industry in Bangladesh. Exporting a finished garment for them meant converting fibers/cotton to yarn and then converting this yarn to grey fabrics, and finally the grey fabric to dyed/printed cloth. This backward linkage with emphasis on the Readymade Garment industry propelled other raw material and ancillary industries into production. (Habib, 2009)>GET ANSWER