• “Superman and Me” –Sherman Alexie
• “Small-Town Tales” –Michele Serros
• “Learning to Read” –Malcolm X
• “Mother Tongue” –Amy Tan
Reflect on the ways literacy plays out in your life. What do you learn about yourself as a reader and writer through this reflection?
cultures contrasting attitudes towards learning difficulties (especially that of a parent) can affect access to higher education. As Nayoung Kim (2010) argued, the views of what is considered both normal and deviant are constructed by the surrounding society, meaning that different cultures have different definitions of disability. Due to this, the view of the parents doesn’t necessarily match with the professionals. This leads onto the point that “Asians are less likely (than Europeans) to believe that their child has a learning disability” (Nayoung Kim, 2010, p.1-5). This idea is supported by various studies that show Asians being more inclined to blame the child’s effort and other environmental factors for a child’s poor achievement (Stevenson and Stigler, 2006, p.8). It’s apparent that generally, East Asians have negative views towards disabilities and mental health issues. This is most likely because, as McCabe (2007) and Schwartz (1995, cited from Nayoung Kim 2010, p. 1-5) explained, Asian parents are judged by their children’s achievement and while their child’s success brings honour to the family, their failures bring shame. These points are largely contrasting to the white working-class, who were found to be more willing to blame student’s mistakes on “disabilities and innate abilities” (Stevenson and Stigler, 2006, p.8). This is mostly because learning disabilities are much more commonly diagnosed in the UK (especially among the working-class) and are more socially accepted. It’s interesting to note that these respective views may strongly link to their governments concept of disabilities and the support they give regarding them. In China for example, there are only three main types of disabilities recognised (visual impairment, hearing impairment and mental retardation) (Lo, 2008, cited from Nayoung Kim 2010, p.1-5). This choice by the government means that Chinese schools very rarely recognise things such as autism and other learning disabilities. When you compare this to the UK, there are vast forms of help available to students depending on their struggles and even exclusive schools which cater specifically to these pupils. The government also created more options for those who have disabilities and struggle with the workload that higher education has, such as paid apprenticeships, which are essentially non-existent in East Asia. Not only are white parents generally more accepting of learning difficulties, it also means that higher education isn’t the only option for working-class students and there are other paths to take that may be more suited to their needs. This isn’t the case for East Asian pupils, as higher education remains the most common and socially accepted route for the cultural reasons mentioned earlier. This causes a decrease in the amount of white working-class students going into higher education and an increase in the number of East Asians attending university.>GET ANSWER