In this assignment you will be using the data collected by the class in Assignment 3 that consists of the
(responses to thank you) variable using the rapid and anonymous survey methodology. You may work
individually or in pairs. If you wish to work in pairs you must notify Prof. Denis by March 13th to tell
him who your partner is. One email per pair is sufficient. If you do not notify Prof. Denis that you are
working in pairs, you will be expected to hand in individual assignments. If you wish to work independently,
you do not need to notify Prof. Denis. On March 14th, you will be randomly assigned a subset of
the data to use in your assignment. You must use the data set assigned to you.
Your assignment is to analyze the sociolinguistic patterns in the data set by investigating at least three
conditioning factors on the responses to thank you. You must also investigate at least one interaction
between two conditioning factors. You will be required to provide graphs of your results. You may make
these graphs using whatever method you prefer (Excel, R, by-hand, etc.).
Your aim is to write a short report (no more than 2 pages, excluding graphs) that provides a clear picture
of the sociolinguistic status of this variable. You should not just state the quantitative results for your
conditioning factors (i.e., ‘men use uh-huh more than women’). Rather, you should start by thinking about
sociolinguistic questions to ask about the variable and choose conditioning factors to investigate that will
help you answer those questions. You may investigate more than one question if you wish.
You can come up with any relevant sociolinguistic question but here are some you might consider:
Is there a change in progress happening?
Is there evidence that one variant is more formal/standard/polite than another variant?
Is there evidence for different kinds of social stratification?
Have non-native speakers generally adopted the same system that native speakers use?
You will have to think carefully about the conditioning factors (and possible interactions between them)
that you would want to consider. For example, if you wanted to investigate the possibility of change in
progress, you might want to consider Age to see if the frequency has changed over apparent time, but
also the interaction between Age and Gender to see if the data conforms to the principles of change that
we have discussed in class before.
It will be critical for you to attend tutorial on March 14th. In this tutorial, you will be shown how to
work with your dataset in Excel (or another spreadsheet program) in order to analyze your data.
You do not need to consult any other research or literature besides my slides and the textbook but if you do
cite another source, you must provide a reference list and use correct embedded citation practices. If you
are unsure how to do this, you should ask Prof. Denis for advice. Incorrectly citing someone else’s work
or failing to cite someone else’s work are examples of plagiarism and are considered academic offences!
Your assignment is due at the beginning of the final lecture on April 2nd. This is a firm deadline. The
penalty for lateness is 10% per day, up to 6 days (including Saturdays and Sundays).
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.