Write a MA project: the methodology chapter.
It should be 4 pages.

Discuss the use of euphemism and dysphemism in Lebanese Arabic and the strategies used for euphemism and dysphemism.

Most of the papers I read about euphemism and dysphemism did not use naturally collected data.

Write a pragraph about natural data and its importance (you can see as an example the uploaded file, I highlihted page 82 pdf in yellow.

Actually most of the studies I read about euphemism and dysphemism used quessionnaires.

There are collected data from different sources (spoken and written ), spoken data was collected by (the researcher and by lebanese speakers, TV shows, Youtube videos) writen data was collected by (twitter posts and comments – Facebook comments – Instagram comments – forums – Whats App messages).

(Oral-based collection)
(In this study, the qualitative approach is chosen for collecting Lebanese euphemism and dysphemism for many reasons, among them is the fact that the researcher is the primary data-gathering instrument through observing and collecting the data in natural contexts. The study uses the unstructured observance method to collect Lebanese euphemisic and dysphemistic expressions in both oral and written use.

(Written-based collection)

(Written data was collected by (twitter posts and comments – Facebook comments – Instagram comments – forums – Whats App messages).

The open questionnaire method, a quantitative method, was used for the verification of figurative meanings of Lebanese euphemisic and dysphemistic expressions.

Total of the sample = 113 residing in different lebaneses cities

Oral Data were collected from 60 native lebanese speakers (relatives, friends, acquaintances, friends of friends). female 30 females, 30 males, aged between 22 – 53), from different educationl levels. Some got their BA, Some got their MA, and some just finished their high school, and some just finished their intermidate school.

written data was collected from 53 participants on twitter posts and comments – Facebook comments – Instagram comments – forums – Whats App messages (from friend, friends of friends, acuaintance.
Thier profiles on different social media can show if they are males or females but no garentee) their comments were on different posts and photos related to diffreent issues and topics.

data were collected around 4 months.

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.