- To be a mineral, a substance must satisfy five criteria. List these criteria below.
- Circle the substances below that are minerals.
gold nugget vitamin pill quartz diamond brick
granite amber calcite ice oil ivory
- For each substance in question 2 that you did not circle, explain specifically why it is not a mineral.
- Fill in the blanks with the appropriate mineral property. Each property is used once. Properties: luster, hardness, cleavage, fracture, tenacity, color, streak.
a. Mica has a low ___ because is flexible and not very resistant to bending.
b. The resistance of a mineral to scratching is known as the mineral’s ___.
c. The least reliable property when trying to identify a mineral is ___.
d. ___ is the way a mineral reflects light and can be either metallic or non-metallic.
e. A mineral that breaks in a random patter is said to exhibit ___.
f. Though a crystal of amethyst is purple, it appears white in powdered from. Thus we say that amethyst has a white ___.
g. A mineral exhibits ___ when it breaks along a finite number of smooth planes determined by zones of weakness in the crystal structure.
- For each of the minerals below, indicate whether they are ferromagnesian silicates, non-ferrogmagnesian silicates, carbonates, or other.
a. Fluorite CaF2
b. Siderite FeCO3
c. Kyanite Al2SiO5
d. Garnet (Pyrope variety) Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
e. Graphite C
Presentation The idea of Applied Geology to examination of the ground for development, hydrogeology, ecological geography and mining, is central and it is an essential for a tough outcome in any geographical and building plan. The course of events and quality with cost adequacy and the information of the topography of a territory in any designing, mining and geographical plans; streets, borehole drills, spans, seismic activity, working of production lines and so on, are basics that a contractual worker or an association leaving on either topographical or building undertakings ought to be furnished with . The requirement for a set up examination and assessment of geographical highlights in any undertaking destinations hold the key for effectual outcomes as far as its toughness and productivity. The primary basis for ground examination changes with the size and extent of a proposed designing venture; the propriety of the site, the site conditions, ground properties, and ground information for investigation points. Ground examination is the more prohibitive period of expert nosy examination on a site with the related monitory test and detailing intended to get information from three distinct parts of the ground conditions, which are float and soil condition, with lab test and utilization of soil mechanics system, shake head, whose profundity is regularly huge to removal and establishments; bedrocks, quality and auxiliary variety. The Concept of Ground Investigation (GI) Ground examination is the idea of giving geotechnical information which are illustrative of the ground conditions and important to the plan considered. This incorporates surface and subsurface examination, research facility work and verifiable detailing. When setting out on ground examinations these are a portion of the ground conditions required: Crack states of the stones, regarding the stone mass quality it decides. Land history, and stress conditions in the ground, basic to underground designing, for example, mining and passages. Ground conditions and incline solidness, with respect to pore and joint water weight. Quaternary advancement, essentially shake enduring and weakening by disintegration. Man had effects on the ground, which incorporates pollution of Brownfield locales. Nature and quality of rocks and soil, and the challenges that these may present in development. In achieving the correct information for a building or geographical venture, Ground examination must outperform all the ground conditions for legitimate set up investigation and the land standards referenced ought to be fused appropriately paying little respect to any concealed conditions that may emerge. Bringing out field appraisals through ground examination at a beginning period in an undertaking is extremely pertinent so as to achieve a favored methods for getting to the selection of systems that can be utilized in starter ground examination. The geography of a landscape is a basic factor for deciding a special course, which at times may should be adjusted relying upon the idea of the territory. Access course with low ground and shallow profundity to water table which might be exposed to flood with thick natural stores, for example, peat, precarious ground and regions presented to serious enduring conditions are one of the highlights in the geology of a territory. Nature is the most perplexing boundary in ground examination with characterizing highlights like profound valley, soak slope side, streams, and gigantic shake outcrop, for example, batholite. Be that as it may, ground examination diagrams zones where the ground has sufficient limit in solidarity to continue weight; most shakes or soil typically appear as cushion particularly for development purposes and mining. One of the central point in the land approach is the need to plan methods for tending to issues that are of extraordinary worry in a topographic landscape. Idea for Construction The topographical model in ground examination has been detailed so as present a more clear picture of ground conditions. The idea of these perspectives is introduced in 3-D of topographical highlights which are coordinated into autonomous segments of ground conditions. These are; Structural – that diagram the foundation information Geographical – to give the expansive ground picture Geomorphologic – with the close/surface subtleties So as to uncover insufficiencies of ground condition nearby, and center consideration around potential designing issues the model drawing must be very much point by point with required aesthetic capacity. The idea of a geotechnical examination model is lean toward development model through ground examination that will give valuable data and itemized plan and design for task directors and a few contractual workers who don't groups topographical or geotechnical know how. It has additionally gone far in distinguishing regions of troubles, and the size of potential geo-perils that may happen and favored arrangements on them. These are the topographical model reports that are done during ground examinations; Accurate information with topographical records Elucidation of the ground properties and conditions identified with the development ventures, potential issues and the constraints of information. Besides, preliminary pits including headings (level or with slight tendency) and shaft (vertical or with soaks tendency) drill thus called little scale drill are immediate examination techniques which permits an assessment of soil and shake, their inspecting and their exhibition assessment in the field gives a review of the reasonableness of some immediate examination strategies for soil and shakes in development forms. The Concept for Hydrogeology Topography and hydrogeology are utilized to explore lithological structures in deciding the homogeneity of rocks in finding breaks and understanding the porousness of a stone with respect to water, gas and different contaminants underground so as to evaluate the mechanical soundness and accumulate information from the groundwater framework. In ground examinations, groundwater transport stream can be featured in such a way, that springs can be assessed and potential pollution investigated. The reason for topographical and hydrogeological reviews is to increase direct data by outcrop assessment; burrowing channels, boreholes penetrating, leading pressure driven test, for example, (siphoning test investigation and tracer tests) in wells to decide the situ water driven properties of that well. This procedure has been cultivated by field mapping, drill centers assessment, development and extension of a system of groundwater perception wells. Testing of rocks, soil and groundwater are taken, so as to decide the physical, compound, petrographic and mineralogical parameters in lab to dissect the surface of the stone and soil test. The Concept for Environmental Geology Present day landfill transfer offices require nitty gritty examinations, so as to guarantee that fitting plans and wellbeing precautionary measures are set up. Enactments by and large require that those in charge of waste transfer offices to ensure that the destinations are appropriately contained as to avert hurting nature and this must be completed by the help of the geologists to leading point by point site examination. At times, this may necessitate that examinations may keep during and after development of a landfill site, contingent upon the geographical parameters of the earth and the development component, which may require satisfactory consideration every once in a while. Determination of a landfill site for a specific waste or a blend of squanders includes a thought of monetary and social elements, just as geographical and hydrogeological conditions. A geophysical technique was acquainted with build up a model to identify and break down relinquished landfill and debased tuft in the earth. It is likewise use in finding broken zones and acquiring other crucial lithologic data from the beginning. There are other Valuable ways for an important utilization of the geophysical strategies, for example, electrical resistivity strategy, attractive, seismic and gravity technique; contingent upon the physical parameters in ground examination. Geophysical techniques supplement each other on the grounds that they are delicate for different physical parameters. Ground infiltration radar is utilized in spots with low and dry conductivity shake and furthermore to check for contaminants from these landfill regions entering through a stone issue to the ground water. Seismic techniques are utilized to research structures and lithology. Attractive and electromagnetic overviews are useful in finding hidden landfill destinations. These strategies are simple and quick to direct and can inlet huge zone in a brief timeframe. Electromagnetic, seismic, gravity and resistivity techniques are utilized for ground water geophysical examination on a provincial scale. Geophysical reviews gets subsurface information on the conceivable area of groundwater spring and the territory where a drill borehole can be found. The Concept for Mining In mining, geologist screens the stone mass conduct in ground unearthings and burrows. This stone mass conduct shapes the reason for deciding the unearthings and its help techniques just as helping with assessing and observing information during the general procedures. Ground examination for an underground structure is a troublesome undertaking which much of the time doesn't get a legitimate investigation. The fundamental part of ground examination is to build up a steady ground demonstrating which incorporates all the geotechnical and water powered perspective vital for the underground structures as the real idea of the development contract. Shake geometry demonstrating and mechanical conduct of shake masses relies upon the comprehension of the topographical procedures and their mind boggling collaborations, for example, disfigurement, enduring and transformation (Steidl 2003). The right move of the topographical to geotechnical shake mass model and it>GET ANSWER