Studies show that compared with white women, racial and ethnic minority women are less likely to receive epidural analgesia for labor, and are more likely to undergo unscheduled cesarean delivery. Racial and ethnic minority women are also two to three times more likely to die from pregnancy-related causes than white women. A longitudinal study (1999-2002) of women who underwent cesarean delivery found that Black women are significantly more likely to receive general anesthesia compared with white women. This finding is important because of the inherent increased risk when anesthesia is provided during cesarean delivery and the decreased benefit available to the mother for immediate bonding and awareness recall of the birth.You are the only anesthesia provider in labor and delivery. A 30-year-old African-American woman is in labor, and things are proceeding well. You have assessed the patient and believe that the call is to place an epidural; however, the call is for an urgent c – section. Although the patient is refusing the c – section, other providers are actively encouraging the woman to proceed. The c- section proceeds, and a healthy baby is delivered. The obstetrician tells you that you can now sedate the patient, which you do. The OB then proceeds to do a tubal – ligation (to tie her tubes), but the scrub technician reminds theOB that the patient did not consent to such a procedure. Proceeding anyway with the non-consensual procedure, the OB asserts that the patient has too many babies she can’t take care of and she is going to continue having babies.Assume that the obstetrician believes wholeheartedly that the procedure will benefit both the patient and society in general. Recognize, too, that as the expert gatekeepers of medical treatments, physicians tend to have authority over their patients. In response to the non-consensual and discriminatory decision made by the obstetrician, what are your options, and how do you proceed? How do the disparities reflected in the actions and judgments of the other providers affect the trust of minorities in healthcare?
object can be interchangeable social construction. In this regard, threat to the environment include global warming, deforestation and desertification; this idea of environmental securitisation clashes with the state-centric position that military issues are the only threat for states. However, securitisation can only intercede in an issue if it is considered a threat where extraordinary powers are required for the issue to be dealt with, thus specific environmental threats are given priority by securitising actors. The issues regarding the ecosystems is not always considered a major threat due to their politicisation (Buzan et al, 1998) because of these issues are not always subject to securitisation, although some states may perceive issues regarding environmental issues as a threat but this do by a referent object in a specific social, political, linguistic structure. (Stritzel, 2007) The vague conceptualisation of the specific referent object as mentioned by the Copenhagen School – need the post-structural position created by the second generation of securitisation scholars where they stress the importance of the role the audience play along with setting the socio-political environment. (Salter, 2008) The purpose of this essay was to assess critically the strengths and weaknesses of the securitisation theory. After discussing the concept of the securitisation theory as conceptualised by the Copenhagen School, the essay went on to discuss how the theory was developed by second generation of securitization scholars by focusing on “what conditions the social content and meaning of security produced threats.” (Balzacq, 2010) The essay then went on to discuss the stance the Aberystwyth School had on the voice of the audience and finally, the idea of environmental securitisation was discussed. It can be argued that security may not be a negative practice, which as discussed above involves the use of hard power but instead the emancipation from the “relative objectivism” affecting both traditional stance on security and the Copenhagen School work. Therefore, it can be said that the concept of security can be revised to provide a unified position on security. In regard to the securitisation of environmental degradation, environmental issues can be tackled rather than those issues being exploited politically. This essay has provided a range of strength and weaknesses to the Securitisation theory.>GET ANSWER