You raised an important point. Parental consent is not required when reporting child abuse. The slap was not disclosed, it was witnessed by the counselor. You brought up the importance of establishing a safe environment, which may be compromised if Patrick reports the slap while possibly betraying Hope’s trust. Making a child abuse report is encouraged when behavioral, emotional, and physical indicators are noticed by a mandated reporter. In these cases, it is not clear that abuse is occurring, and the context is unknown. Here the slap was observed. Child abuse is associated with risk factors that are present in Hope’s life (Espinosa et al., 2017). Several factors that should be considered when addressing this scenario include single-parent household, lack of social support, high stress, low socioeconomic status, low parental education, and HIV status (Espinosa et al., 2017). Taken together, Hope and Angela are at high risk.