1) Island A is 100 m2 and 1000 m from the mainland. Island B is 50 m2 and 1000 m from the mainland. Island C is 50 m2 and 10 m from the mainland. Compare Island A and B in one graph, and Island B and C in the other graph. For each comparison, demonstrate which island will have greater species richness. Be sure to label x- axis and important lines/points on the graph and designate which islands you are comparing.
Assume that ALL of the mainland plant species had many, extremely light seeds. (8 pts) What would this do to immigration rate? Which island would have the greatest species richness? Demonstrate by graphing all 3 islands on the graph below (be sure to label axes, lines, points).
Now assume that ALL of the islands had extremely high plant herbivory (and each island has the same herbivore pressure). What would this do to extinction rate for all 3 islands? Which island would have the greatest species richness? Demonstrate by graphing all 3 islands on the graph below (be sure to label axes, lines, points.
2) How does the core-satellite hypothesis explain the presence of a dominant species in a grassland dominated by annual plants?
Is this hypothesis most similar to Tilman’s R* theory, Grime’s CSR theory, or Hubbell’s neutral theory? Explain why?
3) For each question, circle whether it is TRUE or FALSE and then briefly EXPLAIN why.
a) True or false. γ (gamma) diversity tells us about resource (environmental) heterogeneity in a given area.
b) True or false. Plant communities that are resistant to disturbance are also resilient to disturbance.
4) CIRCLE (or highlight in RED) ALL factors that limit net primary productivity (NPP) from the list below.
B) Nutrients (eg. nitrogen, phosphorus)
F) Nitrogen fixation
G) Nitrogen mineralization
5) Would you expect β-diversity to be greater in a forest that was clearcut (all the trees and understory was cleared away) or selectively logged (only trees of a certain size were felled/logged) 20 years ago? Explain why. ?
6) Create a species rank abundance plot that illustrates the abundance patterns for two different communities– community A has higher species richness and evenness than community B. Make sure to label your axes and lines. (4 pts)
7) In successional sequences on soil embankments from road cuts through forests, annuals are typically followed by short-lived perennials, which are typically followed by shrubs (e.g., Oregon grape, Salal). To assess which mechanism of succession was involved in the change from perennials to shrubs, an experiment compared the success of Oregon grape and salal where the perennials had been removed and when the perennials were present. The data are shown in figure.
a) Which mechanism of succession is supported by the salal data? Why?
b) Which mechanism of succession is supported by the Oregon grape data? Why?
8) Draw the results of a greenhouse experiment with Arabidopsis thaliana that show evidence for genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity.
9) Design an experiment to test the enemy-release hypothesis. First, state what the enemy-release hypothesis states (specifically in regards to invasive plant populations). Then briefly outline your experimental methods and state how your methods address the hypothesis. Define your response variable, treatments, and any potential traits you will measure.
Draw the results of your experiment if the enemy-release hypothesis is true. (Feel free to draw as many graphs as necessary
10) Fill in the blank with deterministic (D), stochastic (random) (S), or both D and S. (15 pts)
Competition is (a) ____________________________ factor(s) that affects succession.
Proximity to seed source is (a) _____________________________ factor(s) that affects succession.
Priority effects is (a) _________________________ factor(s) that affects succession.
In a primary succession site that is far away from seed source, you would expect
____________________________ factors to play a role early in succession, and
____________________________ factors to play a role later in succession.
11) Use 1 coexistence mechanism to explain why more variable precipitation may INCREASE native plant diversity (name and describe).
12) You collect 50 soil cores from underneath different individuals of an unknown plant species. You put soil from each core into a pot (50 pots) and plant 30 seeds in each pot. As a control, you also plant 30 seeds in potting soil (50 pots) and notice that only these potting soil seeds germinate. Which mechanism BEST explains this result? (2 pts)
C) Belowground competition
D) Enemy-release hypothesis
13) Provide 1 mechanistic reason for why you might expect to see a negative relationship between native and invasive plant diversity at the local 1 m2 scale. (4 pts)
Explain how this relationship could be positive at a larger scale. (4 pts)
Draw a graph that shows the potential for both relationships. (4 pts)
14) State 2 large ways humans are altering the global carbon cycle. (6 pts)
15) Zavaleta et al. 2003 looked at the separate and interactive effect between different global change factors in California grasslands.
P = elevated precipitation
T = elevated temperature
N = nitrogen deposition
C = elevated CO2
Explain, what does the y-axis mean (ie. what does a negative versus positive number mean)? (3 pts)
Which single global change factor had the largest negative impact on all plants in this experiment? (2 pts)
Do these results suggest an interactive effect between different global change factors on California grasslands? How can you tell
Woman Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence | Book Report Distributed: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: fourteenth December, 2017 Disclaimer: This article has been presented by an understudy. This isn't a case of the work composed by our expert exposition journalists. You can see tests of our expert work here. Any feelings, discoveries, conclusions or proposals communicated in this material are those of the writers and don't really mirror the perspectives of UK Essays. The novel Lady Chatterley's Lover starts by presenting the female hero, Constance Chatterley. She was raised as a bohemian of the upper-white collar class, and at 23, she weds Clifford Chatterley, a blue-blood. After their special night, he is sent to war, and returns incapacitated starting from the waist, feeble. Clifford develops to be a proficient essayist, and numerous scholarly men often accumulate at the Chatterley's chateau. The intelligent people end up being empty and appear to be frightened of genuine emotions, and Connie feels progressively segregated. She falls back on a short and baffling issue an essayist who comes to visit Clifford. The separation amongst Connie and Clifford increments as Clifford pulls back into his empty quest for composing and coal-mining. Connie procures a medical caretaker, Mrs. Bolton, to deal with the impaired Clifford so she can pick up flexibility, and Clifford starts to rely upon the medical caretaker; his development winding down into a juvenile reliance. Connie meets Oliver Mellors, the unapproachable and derisive gamekeeper on Clifford's domain and is pulled in to his regular exotic nature. She soon finds that the wellspring of her hopelessness is from not being satisfied in physical love and enthusiasm, and along these lines swings to Mellors. They meet and have intercourse on a few events and she has a sexual arousing that progressions her musings until the end of time. Mellors' old spouse, Bertha returns and causes an outrage, while Connie trusts that she is pregnant with Mellors' youngster. Clifford declines to give Connie a separation. The novel finishes with Mellors sitting tight for his separation, and Connie living with her sister, trusting that they will be as one. Woman Chatterley's Lover lies in a mystery: it is dynamic and obstinate, contemporary and Victorian. It shows Victorian standards, yet it gives the feeling that it is expecting the social morals of the late twentieth century in its limit utilization of obvious foulness. The structure is traditionalist, after the characters over a set timeframe. The characters tend to symbolize a sort and be something of an idea, instead of creating credible qualities. This appears to state that Lawrence utilizes them as purposeful anecdotes to show his estimations of sexiness and his bothering with society. The subjects of sexual personalities and sexual movement are very basic in this novel and each character typifies these thoughts. Connie is a lady who grew up to value the arousing and enthusiastic side of a relationship. Her dad, Sir Malcolm, disclosed to her that it is no great living in a scholarly relationship without erotic nature, similarly as Connie has with Clifford. Her dad is in contact with the two his creative and physical sides; Lawrence associates preservationist with nonconforming sexual traditions. This blend could well be contended as Lawrence's optimal, and in addition Connie's. She is a lady who admires the prospect of union between the body and mind, and can't carry on with an existence with 'all psyche'. At first she needs learned love, at that point she needs sexual satisfaction, at that point she needs a youngster to love and sustain. Constance (incidentally named) is continually altering her opinion on what it is that will finish and fulfill her throughout everyday life. I think this is a decent case of sexual movement as she just alters her opinion in the wake of realizing what more she could pick up from a relationship to make her vibe like a lady. We find out about the horrendous connection amongst Mellors and his significant other Bertha, who incensed him by being sexually forceful and not sufficiently delicate. Through Bertha's 'blame' (as per Mellors negative feeling of this), Lawrence is by all accounts adulating accommodation in ladies; he acknowledges ladies who enable themselves to be receptors to manly specialist. Basically, fulfillment for a lady is accomplished through capitulating to the male. Bertha's sexually controlling trademark indications at women's liberation - she needs to take control of her own pleasure and be sexual when and how she needs. She may have been depicted diversely if the book had been composed today. Disregarding the majority of this, his way to deal with the traditions of sex and the parts of people scarcely appear to be dynamic. Tommy Dukes, a meeting essayist, says that the physical and scholarly can't cooperate and that people have lost their "fabulousness" to each other. He is by all accounts a character that Lawrence accepts has the correct goals, perceiving the importance of physical love as a central route for people to associate mentally. 'Genuine information leaves the entire corpus of the cognizance; out of your gut and your penis as much as out of your cerebrum and psyche. The brain can just break down and rationalise.' In spite of this, he is uninterested about all that he lectures. His speculations are futile without substance and activity, and it is as if he doesn't generally accept what he says without training. He has a failure to go stunning and appears to be sexually bone chilling. It is toward the start of section 6 that it is relatively difficult to take Dukes considerations and feelings as his own. His words cover vigorously with the message of the story: energy can't exist together with a scholarly association. 'A lady needs you to like her and converse with her, and in the meantime adore her and want her; and it appears to me the two things are commonly exclusive.' There is an undeniable qualification between Tommy Dukes, with his very much planned yet useless chat on affection, and the gamekeeper Mellors, behind whose icy camouflage there is a flood of delicacy and energy. They are perfect inverses that uncover diverse sexual personalities Connie faces. Clifford Chatterley is a man who is detached from his condition and from other individuals. He can't feel for the laborers in his coal mines, seeing them more as gear-teeth in his industry than as men. The oddity is that Clifford likewise develops to be a hireling of his industry, defiling himself as an end-result of accomplishment. Clifford likewise values innovation (his sudden enthusiasm for the coal mining/common laborers group) and the accomplishment of his written work over the relationship he has with his better half. He can't reproduce and he appears to neglect this reality with his brains by defending each substantial sensation mentally. Had he been virile, Connie might not have entertained herself with the newly discovered fervor of Mellors, however the way that he isn't supplies the most evident image of changing sexual characters in the twentieth century - the difficulty of the 'repetitive' man. It is however his damage in the war has additionally spoilt his heart. His works (as indicated by Connie) appear to be totally denied of importance. I feel that he goes about as a non-literal character as much as he does as a genuine character since his physical handicap and his absence of exotic nature mirror a more profound restriction and void - much like post-war England. This is particularly featured when he and Connie go out for a stroll outside of Wragby. They go from a scholarly abyss to the remainders of an untainted, blossoming English wide open where Mellors first comes into see. He remains for the natural, peaceful England, and appears to be totally confounded with Clifford and the aloof men who assemble at Wragby. Clifford just starts to contemplate the neighborhood towns and about the coal mines in which the nearby men work when Mrs. Bolton tattles to him about nearby undertakings. This appears to call attention to that he needs a legitimate hand to drive him in the 'right' heading, regardless of whether it's simply to contemplate something classed as a manly occupation. Ironicly the individual to goad him into renewing the withering neighborhood coal industry is a lady. The way that Clifford stipends Connie consent to engage in sexual relations with another man for a beneficiary without a doubt demonstrates that he isn't sexually connected to his better half, and his utilizing this expert over her really indicates what little manliness there is of him cleared out. It is an unexpected and apparently oblivious battle for him to exhibit regularly manly qualities while barren. He reasons that sex would not be essential or tantamount to his and Connie's marriage. This, I accept, is one of his greatest issues of transgression as it indicates exactly how diversely he respects physical contact, contrasted with his significant other. There is likewise the perplexing relationship that develops amongst Clifford and Mrs. Bolton after Connie has cleared out. Her significant other used to work in one of Clifford Chatterley's mines previously he was executed and Mrs. Bolton resents Clifford for this, however she supports a deferential way towards him as she is charmed by her contact with the high society. Clifford relies on her, yet disdains her; she is a worker to him, but at the same time is responsible for him, for he is, without anyone else, powerless. Despite the fact that their affiliation is dependably an ace hireling relationship; it starts to take the state of an unreasonable mother-kid relationship because of Clifford's aggregate dependence upon Mrs. Bolton. I imagine this is a standout amongst the most complex and hypnotizing connections of the book. The novel always demonstrates the complexity between the body and psyche by utilizing Connie and Mellors' frustrating connections as illustrations. Constance is stuck in an association with her better half who is 'all psyche' and Mellors' old spouse was excessively tyrannical for Mellors, making it impossible to feel manly. Connie and Mellors are compelled to take in more about the coalition of both the brain and body; Connie discovers that sex is something other than an 'accident' and a frustrating demonstration, and Mellors finds the passionate cha>GET ANSWER