Policing phases

Police occupy a central and unique position in American society. They are accorded considerable legal authority to ensure collective security, but must balance this

need with individual rights (enumerated in the Bill of Rights). Police practices and organization are a product of this balancing act, with competing societal values

determining the activities and structure of policing. Scholars have identified three distinct phases in the development of American public policing that have been a

response to shifting societal values. What are these three phases and how have these societal values shaped American police activities and structures since the

emergence of public police force? What were/are the consequences (if any) of these policing phases either intended or unintended?

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