1) In a qualitative choice model, the dependent variable only takes qualitative values. T/ F

2)In a logistic regression model, an independent variable X must have binary outcomes. T/F

3)If a dependent variable is modeled in a form of: ln(Pi1−Pi)=α+βXi, where Xi is independent variable. Then this is a typical logistic regression model.

Group of answer choices T/F

4). In a logistic regression model, the parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood method.

T/F

5)In a logistic regression model, the dependent variable can either be a numeric or a categorical variable. T/F

6)In a logistic regression model, an independent variable must be a categorical variable.T/F

7)In a logistic regression model, the coefficients can be estimated using the ordinary least square (OLS) method.T/F

8)One can use a fitted logistic regression model to predict the numeric value of a dependent variable given a set of the values of the independent variables in the model.T/F

9)One can use a fitted logistic regression model to predict the probability/odd of an interest of choice represented by an dependent variable given a set of the values of the independent variables in the model. T/F

10)In a logistic regression model, a coefficient is statistically significant at a 5% significance level if the absolute value of the “z value” of the estimated coefficient is at least 2.0 (T/F)

11)Factor analysis is to find a few underlying variables from a data set that includes a certain number of observed variables.T/F

12)In a factor analysis, the size of a data sample should be larger than the number of the variables in the given data.T/F

13)An exploratory factor analysis focuses on finding the most likely factor structure for the relationships among a set of variables without any pre-established theory. T/F

14)In a factor analysis process, a so-called “Scree Plot” is used to determine an optimal number of factors given a set of data.T/F

15)To obtain the final estimates of the factoring loadings and factor scores in a factor analysis process, one can employ a varimax rotation technique. T/F

16)A confirmatory factor analysis is used

to test whether a factor structure conforms with the

expected one based on a pre-established theory.

Group of answer choices T/F

17)The two main factor analysis techniques are Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

(CFA). T/F

18)In an exploratory factor analysis, the underlying variables/factors found from the process are unobservable factors that are not directly measured but are essentially hypothetical. These factors are used to represent the observed variables given a set of data.

19)Given a set of data, a factor analysis can be implemented in many software packages such as R, Python, SAS, SPSS, JMP, Matlab, among others.T/F

20)A factor analysis can be applied in many business fields such as marketing, economics, management, finance, and etc.T/F

Sample Solution

nguage was not related to the nature of social engagement between them and the mothers. Chomsky, 1968 argued that language was innate and is categorised into surface structure and deep structure, however Karmiloff and Karmiloff-Smith (2001) criticised his theory and stated that researchers need to take into account of each of them to be able to explain their part of the story. Computers do not contain an innate knowledge of language and only know what has been input into them. However, scientists at Liverpool University have developed a set of algorithms so if the computer does not understand a word or sequence of words it is given, it will learn similar to humans in relation to language and look up the word to put it into a context the computer will understand. Bollegala, 2015, said that learning accurate word representations is the first step towards teaching language to computers. Cognitive processing theory has played a massive part in understanding language, it has addressed how children learn how to differentiate words out of a stream of sounds and found that toddlers’ brains are data crunching. (Saffron et al, 1999) used made up words inside random syllables to see whether children, adults and infants could differentiate the words from the random syllables. They found that infants listen to non-words longer which is new to them so they find it interesting. (Aslin, Saffron and Newport, 1998). This then led to them theorising that our brains are similar to a computer as they automatically use probability to pick out words from a sound stream so therefore computer analogy is sufficient because….. Cognitive neuropsychologists find functions provide valuable information about cognitive scientology. Markoff, 2014 promised that a new chip IBM produced which functions like a brain, forming equivalent of one million neurons and has the cognitive capacity of a bee may in the near future be implanted in a human to assume functions in injured patients whose particular cognitive functions have been compromised. However, this has since been criticised as neurons are not a digital organism and should not be compatible with a digital computer. Computers have also influenced research on memory within humans, within this research extensive evidence has shown that computers and human brains are similar in relation to memory functions. The computers RAM (random access memory) and the humans STM (short term memory) are both capable of recalling immediate actions, only slight difference is when you turn off a computer the RAM is gone, furthermore this could also be likened to when the humans STM turns into LTM while we are sleeping. Another memory process which has striking resemblance is the computers hard drive and humans LTM (long term memory) this is where all data is located and information can be retrieved from them. However, research has shown that computers have a single memory storage in the form of CACHE in the CPU, (computers processing unit) Pinel theorised that humans cannot have a single memory storage as all information is processed and transferred slowly from one side to the other. The closest resemblance to this is the neuronal network attractors (Mitchell, 1993). The cerebral cortex wakes the NNA up and reactivates memory. It was using this knowledge that Ramirez et al, 2013 was able to implant a memory into a mouse’s brain. To conclude, the main thesis of this was that humans have a more extensive background of knowledge and learning that computers would not be able to match, much research agrees with th>

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