Report on the experiment completed by Joule

Introduction
James Prescott Joule was prominent in the subject area of Thermodynamics in the 19th Century. Born in Salford, Manchester he is credited with the much advancement in the subject including contribution to the explanation of the Laws of the Conservation of Energy which led to the development of the First Law of Thermodynamics. The SI unit of energy, the Joule, is named in his honour. During his investigations Joule designed and conducted many experiments, one of which was the “Mechanical Demonstration of the Conversion of Work into Heat”.

Complete a full report on the experiment completed by Joule and discuss the implications and significanceof Joules findings. The work should include:-
An explanation of the equipment and experimental procedure used.
The important findings of the experiment.
The implications of the findings and their relevance to the development of the Laws of Thermodynamics.

Report Structure
The report is a technical report which should aim to report on the experimental process, findings and include appropriate discussions and conclusions. Included in the text should be relevant references to enforce any technical points discussed using a recognised referencing method.

The main body of text of the formal report (i.e. sections from the Introduction to Conclusions) must be no more than 3000 words, excluding appendices and references. Please note that only the first 3000 words will be marked, where anything outside of this will not be assessed.

The report should be word processed, well-constructed and presented in accordance with the guidelines given in appendix 1 of this document. Please note this appendix is intended to be a general outline for formal reports and not all sections may be applicable.

Note
To meet this learning outcome it is expected that the report is constructed and completed to a standard commensurate with the academic level. The areas of spelling, grammar, punctuation will be reviewed by the marker along with the ability of the student to construct a meaningful discussion.
With regard to references, an appropriate referencing system must be employed and be consistently applied throughout. It is expected that a number of sources are presented including journals, text books, e – books along with appropriate media and webpages. In summary you are expected to source a diverse range of material.

Submission
You must submit an electronic copy (PDF) of your report via the Canvas VLE for the module 5107MECH Engineering Practice 2in the referral/deferral tab folder no later than23.59 on Friday, 10th August 2018.

Allocation of marks for the report

Title page
Abstract / Summary
Contents
Introduction
10%
Theory behind the
Apparatus utilised
Experimental procedure (method employed)
30%
Discussion on the relevance of the findings
Conclusions
30 %
References 20%
Overall presentation including grammar, spelling etc 10%
Total 100%

Note
A more comprehensive mark sheet is available on the CANVAS site for the module.

Guide to Performance Criteria
70% and above:
Your work must be of outstanding quality and fully meet the requirements of the coursework specification and learning outcomes stated. You must show independent thinking and apply this to your work showing originality and consideration of key issues. There must be evidence of wider reading on the subject.
60% – 70%:
Your work must be of good quality and meet the requirements of the coursework specification and learning outcomes stated. You must demonstrate some originality in your work and show this by applying new learning to the key issues of the coursework. There must be evidence of wider reading on the subject.
50% – 60%:
Your work must be comprehensive and meet all of the requirements stated by the coursework specification and learning outcomes. You must show a good understanding of the key concepts and be able to apply them to solve the problem set by the coursework. There must be enough depth to your work to provide evidence of wider reading.
40% – 50%:
Your work must be of a standard that meets the requirements stated by the coursework specification and learning outcomes. You must show a reasonable level of understanding of the key concepts and principles and you must have applied this knowledge to the coursework problem. There should be some evidence of wider reading.
Below 40%:
Your work is of poor quality and does not meet the requirements stated by the coursework specification and learning outcomes. There is a lack of understanding of key concepts and knowledge and no evidence of wider reading.

Plagiarism
Plagiarism is considered as academic misconduct. The University takes cases of plagiarism very seriously and all alleged cases of academic misconduct will be investigated thoroughly by a School Investigatory Panel. Students are advised to ensure that any coursework submitted is their own work or, where the work of others is referred to (this includes any third-part material e.g. text, images, diagrams, drawings), it is correctly referenced. The University defines plagiarism in the following way:
The representation of the work, written or otherwise, of any other person, from any source whatsoever, as the candidate’s own. Examples of plagiarism may be as follows:
The verbatim copying of another’s work without clear identification and acknowledgement – including the downloading of materials from the internet without proper referencing and acknowledgement
The close paraphrasing of another’s work by simply changing a few words or altering the order of presentation, without clear identification and acknowledgement.
Unidentified and unacknowledged quotation of phrases from another’s work.
The deliberate and detailed presentation of another’s concept as one’s own.

For more information you are directed to following the university websites:
Information regarding plagiarism: http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/studysupport/81924.htm
Information regarding referencing: http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/studysupport/69049.htm

Appendix 1: Writing academic individual and group reports

Contents

1. Introduction 6
2. Style and Formatting 6
3. Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar 7
4. Structure 7
4.1 Title Page 7
4.2 Acknowledgements 7
4.3 Abstract 8
4.4 Table of Contents 8
4.5 Main Text 8
4.6 Appendices 9
4.7 References 10
5. Referencing Sources 10
5.1 Using the Citation Manager 10
5.1.1 Managing Sources 11
5.1.2 Inserting a citation 12
5.1.3 Generating a list of citations 13
References 13
6. Cross-referencing Equations, Tables and Figures 13
6.1 Equations 14
6.2 Tables 14
6.3 Figures 15
References 15

Introduction
This document provides guidance on the basic structure and formatting which is required when submitting formal technical reports.
In section 2, the requirements regarding document style and formatting are discussed. This provides a set of rules and guidelines which should be followed during the preparation of reports which are submitted in the modules listed above. Section 3 outlines the rules on spelling, punctuation and grammar along with an important requirement regarding the tense in which the report should be written. Section 4 provides an overview of the expected structure of any general engineering report. It is important to note that the specific structure will depend upon the project being carried out and should be discussed with supervision staff. Section 5 provides detailed information on how information sources should be referenced in a report while section 6 gives clear rules regarding how equations, figures and tables should be labelled and cross-referenced. Finally, section Error! Reference source not found. gives some essential information regarding preparation for digital submission.
Style and Formatting
The report should be written using a word processor (Microsoft Word 2010 is the University supported package). When submitted the report should have the following general characteristics:
Text Colour: Black
Font: 11pt – Arial, Calibri, Times New Roman (or similar)
Line Spacing: 1.5
Margins: Left = 30mm, Top = 20mm, Right = 20mm, Bottom = 30mm
Header: Module code and report title
Footer: Left = Student name and person number, Right = Page number.
Binding: Comb bound or metal strip (available in the library)
Title Page: White paper printed as per the supplied template.
Front Cover Material: Clear plastic acetate
Back Cover Material: Black or white card / paper
Compliance with these formatting requirements ensures that the report is readable and that it can be handled, marked and stored robustly.
Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar
It is expected that all students will submit a report which is written in the third-person passive tense using good quality English language and which is free from spelling mistakes. It is also expected that the report should be well punctuated and that it should use grammar which promotes comfortable reading.
The spelling and grammar checking tools which are built into Microsoft Word mean that it should be possible to eliminate most errors prior to the proof reading process. The availability of this functionality also means that there is no excuse for significant numbers of spelling or grammar errors to appear in your report. It is important to ensure that the spellchecker function is properly regionalised as it will normally default to using US English instead of UK English.
Structure
In general reports should follow the general structure shown below:
Title Page (no section number or page number)
Acknowledgements (no section number)
Abstract (no section number)
Table of Contents (no section number)
Main Text (with section numbers)
Appendices (with appendix number, not section number)
References (no section number)
The following subsections provide information regarding what is expected in each case.
4.1 Title Page
The title page must follow the template supplied on Blackboard. The template includes the approved LJMU logo, the title of the project, the full names of all contributors (i.e. authors), the project supervisor and the date when the report is submitted.
4.2 Acknowledgements
If it is appropriate, the student (individual projects) or group (design projects) may wish to thank people or organisations for help or support which has been provided. This should be supplied on its own page and does not have a section number.

4.3 Abstract
The abstract is a concise summary of the material which is contained within the report. It provides the potential reader with essential information regarding the primary aim of the project and possibly a problem statement. It will outline the methods or procedures which have been used and if applicable will mention the basic experimental procedures followed. The abstract will also provide a summary of the main results and the most important conclusions which can be drawn from the work. The abstract will be a single paragraph and will be no more than 200 words.
4.4 Table of Contents
Every report should include a table of contents, after the abstract but before the main body of text. All numbered sections in the report must be included in addition to the un-numbered sections such as acknowledgements, abstract and references.
4.5 Main Text
The exact formulation of the main body of text will depend upon the nature of the project being reported upon. However, there are some common sections which most reports would be expected to have:
Introduction
It is common for the first section of the main body of text to be an introduction which provides the reader with background on the project and the motivation for carrying it out. The introduction should clearly state the project aims and objectives.
Theory/Research/Literature Review
The introduction is often followed by a literature review relating to important aspects of the project being undertaken. This section will give the reader a clear and concise outline of the research which has been carried out and an analysis of what the findings from the research mean in relation to the rest of the project.
Method
Following the research, a section which describes and justifies approach which was taken to completing the aims of the project should be outlined. In an experimental or simulation based project, this section will describe what apparatus (or software) was used and the way in which the experiment (or model) was set up. The method will describe how the testing was carried out and will justify the ways in which results were collected and recorded and what measures were taken in order to recognise and reduce sources of error.
In a design report, the Method section will describe the design process which was followed and will justify the way in which that method was applied. If a criteria based approach (for example) has been taken, then the criteria must be justified objectively and quantified where possible.
Results
Following the method, a section containing the results of the process (experiment, simulation, design etc.) will be presented. This section will clearly collate results in an appropriate form (graphs, tables, drawings) depending upon the type of project. It is crucial that results are provided in a critical and objective manner. The language which is used should provide the reader with a clear and unbiased review of the outcome of the method. If there are limitations to the accuracy or validity of results then this should be made clear.
Discussion
The discussion is probably the single most important section of the report. It is in this section where the author has an opportunity to analyse and evaluate the results and to present the findings to the reader in the clearest way possible. The discussion should never simply summarise what has been done.
Conclusions
The conclusions section will provide a clear and concise summary of the main findings of the project and will give the author an opportunity to offer recommendations. By definition, there should be no findings given in the conclusions which have not previously been covered in the discussion.
4.6 Appendices
Appendices are self-contained supplements to your report. Information which is not directly required to explain your conclusions but which helps to support your findings can be included after the main body of text but before the references.
4.7 References
The final component of your report will be a complete list of references for sources which you have cited in your report (See Section 5).

Referencing Sources
It is essential that all reports are properly referenced using a recognised referencing style. Proper referencing requires that citations are placed into the text of the report itself in order to inform the reader whenever a third-party source of information has been referred to or quoted. It is also necessary to provide a citation in the caption of any figure which has been scanned or reproduced (redrawn) from another source. See Section 6.3 for more information.
It should be noted that adding a bibliography is not sufficient since this is simply a list of books or other sources which have been consulted. A bibliography gives no indication of when or where a particular reference has been used. A proper referencing system provides not only a list of sources used but also a positive link (citation) back to that source which is placed in the body of the text.
The required referencing formats are either the Harvard system or the ISO690 Numerical style. An advantage of using the Harvard system is that you can get free study support at the library which will help you to understand how it works and how it should be applied. A disadvantage of this system is that it cannot be generated automatically using the Microsoft Word® (MS Word) citation manager.
5.1 Using the Citation Manager
The citation manager utilises a set of tools which are available in the ‘References’ section of the ‘Ribbon’ in Microsoft Word (Figure 1).

Figure 1 – Citation Manager tools in the references section of the MS Word ribbon.
The citation manager requires the user to do three things, these are:
Manage Sources
Insert Citations
Generate a list of citations (references)
5.1.1 Managing Sources
A list of sources can be created and maintained using the ‘Manage Sources’ feature of Word. This is activated and edited but clicking on the ‘Manage Sources’ button in the References section of the ribbon (see Figure 2). The information relating to each source is then added to a simple database by completing the appropriate fields (see Figure 3), doing so ensures that the references produced will meet the requirements.

Figure 2 – Click on ‘Manage Sources’ to access and edit a database of sources used in your report.

Figure 3 – The Source Manager is used to add information regarding sources which can be referenced using citations.
5.1.2 Inserting a citation
A citation can be added to the text in the required location by placing the cursor and clicking on the ‘Insert Citation’ button. This will place the reference, which you select from a list, at the cursor in the format defined by the ‘Style’ option. You should ensure that this is set to ‘ISO 690’. The numerical reference will then be inserted into the text like this ->(2).

Figure 4 – Citations are added by clicking ‘Insert Citation’ button and then selecting the reference from a list.

5.1.3 Generating a list of citations
When you are compiling your report, the final section will be a list of references (NOT a bibliography). This can be automatically generated if you are using the Word Citation Manager.
The list of citations will be added in the location selected and will look something like this:
References
1. Matthews, Christian.Notes for Guidance: Writing individual project and group design reports. Liverpool : s.n., 2010.
2. Pugh, Stuart.Total Design. 1st Edition. Harlow : Pearson Education, 1991.
3. Bosch, Robert.Automotive Handbook. 5th Edition. Warrendale, PA : SAE International, 2001.
4. Bolton, William.Mechatronics: A multidisciplinary approach. London : Pearson Education, 2008.

By default, the list will be entitled ‘Citations’ but you can manually edit the heading.
Cross-referencing Equations, Tables and Figures
In addition to using proper referencing to indicate which sources have been used, it is also important that the reader is provided with good cross referencing information when equations, tables and figures are used to reinforce the written word of the report. Microsoft Word includes tools to insert captions (including automatic numbering) and to insert cross references in the text (which will be automatically updated if numbering changes). The captioning and cross-referencing tools are available from the ‘References’ tab in the ribbon (Figure 5).

Figure 5 – Cross-referencing
6.1 Equations
Equations should be inserted and edited using the built-in equation editor (Alt + =). The equation should be centred on the page and its label is normally added on the right hand side (see example below).
m dv/dt=?¦F (1)

However, the built in captioning and cross referencing tools in Microsoft Word will only allow captions to be added above or below an equation, for this reason it is equally acceptable to label and caption equations as shown below.
m dv/dt=?¦F
Equation 1
6.2 Tables
Tables should be centred on the page and their number and caption should be placed above. This is shown in the example table (Table 1) below. Note that the table should be given a descriptive caption which provides the reader with clear information. If the table uses data from another source then a citation should be included in the caption.

Table 1- Vehicle Specifications for the Lamborghini Diablo SV 5.7i (3)
Specification Value
Useful Power @ 7100 RPM [kW] 390
Maximum Torque @ 5500 RPM [Nm] 605
Maximum Speed [km/h] 320
Acceleration (0-100km/h) [seconds] 3.85
Curb Weight [kg] 1530
Gross Vehicle Weight [kg] –
Weight-to-power ratio [kg/kW] 3.9
Specific Power Output [kW/l] 68.3

6.3 Figures
Figures should also be centred on the page but their number and caption should be placed below. This convention is shown in the example below. If the figure is taken from another source then the citation should be included in the caption.

Figure 6 – A simple amplification system. From Bolton, W. Mechatronics: A Multidisciplinary Approach (4th), London. Pearson Education, 2008. Page 63 (4)
References
1. Matthews, Christian.Notes for Guidance: Writing individual project and group design reports. Liverpool : s.n., 2010.
2. Pugh, Stuart.Total Design. 1st Edition. Harlow : Pearson Education, 1991.
3. Bosch, Robert.Automotive Handbook. 5th Edition. Warrendale, PA : SAE International, 2001.
4. Bolton, William.Mechatronics: A multidisciplinary approach. London : Pearson Education, 2008.

Guide to Performance Criteria
70% and above:
Your work must be of outstanding quality and fully meet the requirements of the coursework specification and learning outcomes stated. You must show independent thinking and apply this to your work showing originality and consideration of key issues. There must be evidence of wider reading on the subject.
60% – 70%:
Your work must be of good quality and meet the requirements of the coursework specification and learning outcomes stated. You must demonstrate some originality in your work and show this by applying new learningto the key issues of the coursework. There must be evidence of wider reading on the subject.
50% – 60%:
Your work must be comprehensive and meet all of the requirements stated by the coursework specification and learning outcomes. You must show a good understanding of the key concepts and be able to apply them to solve the problem set by the coursework. There must be enough depth to your work to provide evidence of wider reading.
40% – 50%:
Your work must be of a standard that meets the requirements stated by the coursework specification and learning outcomes. You must show a reasonable level of understanding of the key concepts and principles and you must have applied this knowledge tothe coursework problem. There should be some evidence of wider reading.
Below 40%:
Your work is of poor quality and does not meet the requirements stated by the coursework specification and learning outcomes. There is a lack of understanding of key concepts and knowledge and no evidence of wider reading.

Plagiarism
Plagiarism is considered as academic misconduct. The University takes cases of plagiarism very seriously and all alleged cases of academic misconduct will be investigated thoroughly by a School Investigatory Panel. Students are advised to ensure that any coursework submitted is their own work or, where the work of others is referred to (this includes any third-part material e.g. text, images, diagrams, drawings), it is correctly referenced. The University defines plagiarism in the following way:
The representation of the work, written or otherwise, of any other person, from any source whatsoever, as the candidate’s own. Examples of plagiarism may be as follows:
The verbatim copying of another’s work without clear identification and acknowledgement – including the downloading of materials from the internet without proper referencing and acknowledgement
The close paraphrasing of another’s work by simply changing a few words or altering the order of presentation, without clear identification and acknowledgement.
Unidentified and unacknowledged quotation of phrases from another’s work.
The deliberate and detailed presentation of another’s concept as one’s own.

For more information you are directed to following the university websites:
Information regarding plagiarism: http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/studysupport/81924.htm
Information regarding referencing: http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/studysupport/69049.htm

 

Sample Solution

ACED ESSAYS