Explain what sentencing options would be most appropriate for the case you choose.
Explain the principles of restorative justice and how they can be applied.
Explain the concept of restitution, the rationale for ordering restitution, and how it fits into the concept of restorative justice.
Explain the major problems associated with restitution and how that can impact the goal of restorative justice.
Compare and contrast reintegrative shaming and stigmatization.
What benefits do you see to both reintegrative shaming and stigmatization, and why?
Compare and contrast conferencing and sentencing circles.
Giotto was a Florentine painter and modeler who was perceived as an imaginative virtuoso and hero amid the Italian Renaissance. For craftsman Giorgio Vasari - the immense biographer of Italian Renaissance craftsmen - the new workmanship had its introduction to the world with Giotto. Giotto lived and worked when society was investigating and testing the limits of medieval customs and establishments. This is reflected in his religious subjects where the natural, full-blooded vitality for which he was so renowned was to start the beginnings of masterful naturalism and humanism. For Vasari, Giotto's work speaks to a period when painting woke from its long subjection to the Greeks. As Hale says: the firmness of the Byzantine style offered approach to something like effortlessness, figures started to cast shadows and to be foreshortened, their drapery uncovered development and their countenances reflected inclination, fear, expectation, outrage or love.  These attributes are reflected in one of Giotto's most punctual works, Madonna and Child, where the youngster, albeit now lost, is tenderly catching the Madonna's hand, with its other hand outstretched to her face. The Madonna's eyes meet those of the watcher with a stretched gaze. Both of these characteristics mirror Giotto's longing to express human assumption and his enthusiasm for the correspondence of feeling. Giotto likewise explores different avenues regarding structure with the goal that the straight arrangement of the Madonna's highlights are compared against the state of her outfit which streams down and far from her face. Giotto is celebrated for his frescoes at Assisi where he sustained another utilization of room and shading. For instance, The Doctors of the Church sets representations inside regions confined by lavishly beautiful geometric, metaphorical, and botanical motifs. In The Scenes from the Life of St. Francis the solid depiction of creatures, plants, blooms, ceramics and rocks are coordinated into the human situations with the goal that the two end up essential to each other. In St. Francis Giving his Mantle to a Poor Knight the red of the knight's robe is seen on the back of the donkey and in the structures and scenes of the foundation. This is suggestive of Giotto's longing to bind together unique components of his artistic creations - a subject which was to proceed into the patterns of the fourteenth century. Without a doubt in his frescoes at Padua (1302-5) where he painted the lives of Christ and the Virgin in the private sanctuary of Enrico Scrovegni, Padua's most extravagant native, his combination amongst figures and space and his origination of them as a 'solitary rational unit' is taken to another extraordinary. An area of The Last Judgment demonstrates Enrico Scrovegni offering a model of the house of prayer to Mary, who remains next to a holy person and a holy messenger. The blessing symbolizes Enrico looking for contrition for his dad's wrongdoing of usury. This course of action mirrors man's correspondence with God, and thusly the unification of the material and the otherworldly. In The Last Judgment, where Christ sits encompassed by an air, Giotto places figures at the focal point of their reality - speaking to humankind's place at the focal point of history and his extraordinary uniqueness, which was to end up a major of the humanist vision amid the fourteenth century. Fourteenth century Italian craftsmanship was inherently connected to the political improvements happening amid the time. Giotto was surely one of the first to attest a style in view of perceptions of nature as opposed to the maintaining of medieval conventions, and amid a period when city states were winding up more autonomous, and majority rules systems were represented by organizations - relationship of traders, investors, craftsmans, and other professionals - this type of masterful flexibility was invited by the individuals who had law based or political impact. Giotto's designing of the family churches of the wealthiest natives of Florence and Padua proposes that craftsmanship was viewed as an extreme tasteful portrayal of righteousness and influence. In S. Croce Giotto painted the life of St. Francis in the Bardi church and those of the two St. Johns in the Peruzzi sanctuary. The Bardi and Peruzzi were the two biggest financier groups of Florence and court brokers of the rulers of England and Naples, to the last of whom Giotto was court painter between 1328-32. These were critical improvements for fourteenth century craftsmanship as at Peruzzi Giotto fuses representation heads, apparently of the Peruzzi family. As Antal phrases it: 'it was the wealthiest subjects of Florence who were the first to be spoken to, outside a fresco or religious painting, in entirely autonomous pictures, however still for the time being inside the same frame.' Later work of art was to totally isolate representations from religious artistic creations with the goal that the individual could be spoken to as free of, yet associated with, the otherworldly domain. Fourteenth-century frescoes uncover that independence was extraordinarily regarded in the Italian city-republics, and a creating pattern for opportunity of articulation can be found in Giotto's understudies and successors, for example, Taddeo Gaddi. The lives of Christ, the Virgin and the Saints were the subjects of numerous vital compositions and figures dispatched at the time. In any case, despite the fact that these subjects proceed with those utilized by Giotto, his style started to be adjusted by his understudies. His concept of a canvas as a solitary brought together entire was taken further by fusing a more prominent assorted variety of individual components inside that entirety. As Antal clarifies it: The painters surrendered Giotto's centripetal accentuation with a specific end goal to get a more full story; the quantity of figures is more noteworthy, they are individualized and greater heartfelt in their developments, more enthusiastic or all the more enchanting; at times scene prevails, and the design is more extravagant and more Gothic. Be that as it may, Giotto's work was still to demonstrate vital to the progressions happening amid the fourteenth century. By mid-century, Italy observed a surge of aesthetic yield which incorporated new beliefs into before methods of portrayal. After some time, figures turned out to be more naturalistic, and the straight and precise nature of apparel on figures wound up mellowed. As said over, Giotto's volumetric figures of Madonna and of Christ express these characteristics - about a century sooner. These works were to impact significant fourteenth century specialists, for example, Michelangelo and Raphael. As found in Madonna and Child Giotto tried different things with the type of the figure and made a shadow impact, adding three dimensionality to the work of art. This answer for making the fantasy of robustness to his figures was produced by the later specialists who are well known for their lovely eye for detail. With Giotto, the two dimensional universe of thirteenth-century Italian painting was changed into a simple for the genuine world. It was the effortlessness of his style and his dominance of fantasy which charmed the groups of onlookers of his opportunity. As Bernard Berenson puts it: With the least complex means, with relatively simple light and shade, and practical line, he thinks up to render, out of all the conceivable blueprints, out of all the conceivable varieties of light and shade that a given figure may have, just those that we should detach for exceptional consideration when we are really acknowledging it. Giotto was to establish the frameworks of a radical imaginative development in fourteenth century Italy. Later specialists built up the effortlessness of his utilization of line, frame and three-dimensionality. His strong utilization of shading and structure was to accelerate an abundance of changes in the styles and tastes of fourteenth century Italian workmanship, and his commitments to the historical backdrop of feel are maybe probably the most far reaching ever. Book index Antal, F., 1947, Florentine Painting and Its Social Background; the Bourgeois Republic before Cosimo De' Medici's Advent to Power: XIV and Early XV Centuries. London: K. Paul Bennett, A., 1999, Giotto. London: Dorling Kindersley Berenson, B., 1953, The Italian Painters of the Renaissance. Phaidon: New York Sound, J.R., 1954, England and the Italian Renaissance: The Growth of Interest in Its History and Art. London: Faber and Faber Osmond, S.F., 1998, The Renaissance Mind Mirrored in Art. World and I, Vol. 13 http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/iptg/hd_iptg.htm. Additionally Reading Henderson, J., and Verdon, T., (eds), 1990, Christianity and the Renaissance: Image and Religious Imagination in the Quattrocento. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press Martindale, A., 1969, The Complete Paintings of Giotto. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. Murray, L., and Murray, P., 1963, The Art of the Renaissance. New York: Praeger References  Osmond, S.F., 1998, The Renaissance Mind Mirrored in Art. World and I, Vol. 13. p.1.  Hale, J.R., 1954, England and the Italian Renaissance: The Growth of Interest in Its History and Art. London: Faber and Faber, p.60.  Bennett, A., 1999, Giotto. London: Dorling Kindersley, p.25.  Ibid, p.66.  Ibid, p.71.  Osmond, S.F., 1998, The Renaissance Mind Mirrored in Art. World and I, Vol. 13.  Antal, F., 1947, Florentine Painting and Its Social Background; the Bourgeois Republic before Cosimo De' Medici's Advent to Power: XIV and Early XV Centuries. London: K. Paul, p.159.  Ibid, p.159.  Ibid, p.174.  http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/iptg/hd_iptg.htm.  Berenson, B., 1953, The Italian Painters of the Renaissance. Phaidon: New York, p.44.>GET ANSWER