Apply concepts related to statesmanship in a specific, researched public administration case study. Whatever source is used for the actual case study must focus on a real-world public administration situation that is being discussed and analyzed in the chosen article.
Crime had been on the increase (5-7 per cent a year) since the early 1950s. However this increase had been argued to be from more effective and efficient reporting and recording techniques (Rutter and Giller, 1984). This increase nevertheless, did prompt a change in the response to crime (Heal, 1992). Neighbourhood watch is said to be one of the most effective crime prevention programmes. It was first launched in the United Kingdom in 1983, with now over 74,000 neighbourhood watchers around the country. The popularity of the scheme can be seen in Hough and Mayhew’s work, (1985) whereby if residents found a neighbourhood watch were to start in their area, 62 per cent of them would be willing to join. Not all academics believe neighbourhood watch is the most effective scheme, Bennett (1992) notes that there is no scientific evidence to suggest it is effective. He also argues that the scheme is all about “positive thinking” to encourage residents to take part and believe that they are doing something positive for their community. Another crime prevention strategy is the theory of broken window policing. The theory was first spoken about by Wilson and Kelling (1982) as they note serious crime only happens when the little things in a community are not being looked after. For example if a city has broken windows it shows a loss of social control within the city therefore more serious crimes are bound to happen. If criminals are arrested for smaller crimes, in theory larger problems should not arise. The theory has been seen in New York City and local officials noted the decrease in major crimes in the 1990s was due to the zero-tolerance strategies of the broken window theory. However many academics disagree that the broken window theory was to blame for the decrease in major crimes in New York City. Many have pointed out that before the broken window policy came into place crime rates were already declining (Bowling, 1999; Baumer and Wolff, 2012; Eck and Maguire, 2006). As well as New York City having lower levels of crime, Canada was also experiencing lower levels of crime but without the broken window concept being applied (Zimring, 2007). This suggests the lower levels of crime in New York City were not due to the broken window theory. Another theory similar to broken window concept is that of situational crime prevention. Clark (1983) defines the theory in his book as removing any opportunity for delinquents to commit a crime. Clarke believes this way is easier than trying to reform the delinquents. An example of trying to remove opportunity is developing secure products for example, manufacturing cars to be more difficult to steal (Clarke and Newman, 2005). A lot of the literature in this section is modern and can still be used in today’s society. However you do have to be cautious of the reliability of statistics as many may not be accounted for. Youth and Crime>GET ANSWER