Multiple Choice (3 points each)

- Which of the following correlation coefficients signifies the weakest correlation?

A. -0.28

B. -0.76

C. +0.12

D. +0.66 - If fear of crime initially decreases with age, but then increases with age after age 40, the correlation between age and fear of crime would be
.*_*

A. Positive

B. Negative

C. Significant

D. Curvilinear - A null hypothesis in an ANOVA test will be rejected if
.**__**

A. Variance between groups is significantly larger than variance within groups

B. Variance within groups is significantly larger than variance between groups

C. The F-ratio is less than the critical F-value

D. The observed frequencies are significantly different from the expected frequencies - The shape of the t-distribution begins to more closely resemble the normal curve (z-distribution) as:

A. Degrees of freedom decrease

B. Degrees of freedom increase

C. The obtained t-value increases

D. The standard error of the difference between means decreases

Short Answer. Your answer must be at least 3 sentences long and written in complete sentences (5 points each). - How is the logic of an ANOVA test similar to that of a t-test? Be sure to discuss how the equation for the obtained t-value is similar to the equation for the F-ratio.
- Why can’t we definitely conclude that two strongly correlated variables have a causal relationship? Use an example in your answer.
- Why do we convert sum of squares to mean squares when conducting an ANOVA?
*For all questions involving calculations, you are required to show your work. If you don’t, I will take points off.*

For questions 8-12, use the following scenario.

A researcher is interested in whether juvenile defendants who are released pending adjudication differ in terms of time to disposition compared to juveniles defendants who are detained. Released juveniles (N = 134) had a mean of 4.14 months to disposition (s = 3.77). Detained juveniles (N = 68) had a mean of 3.62 months to disposition (s = 4.25). Assuming equal population variances, conduct a t-test. - State the null and research hypotheses. Write in full and complete sentences (4 points).

Null:

Research:

- Calculate the standard error of the difference between means (4 points).
- Calculate the obtained t-value (5 points).
- Calculate the degrees of freedom and using a significance level of .01, obtain a critical t-value (3 points).
- Make a decision regarding the null hypothesis, explain how you came to this decision, and interpret your findings (5 points).

For questions 13-16, use the following scenario.

A researcher uses the JDCC (Juvenile Defendants in Criminal Courts) data to examine whether juvenile offenders charged with property crimes differ in terms of total number of charges compared to juvenile offenders charged with violent crimes. She conducts the t-test in SPSS and is willing to take a 5% risk of a false positive.

Independent Samples Test

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower Upper

Total number of charges Equal variances assumed 34.081 .000 4.761 1293 .000 1.498 .315 .881 2.116

Equal variances not assumed 7.041 1287.925 .000 1.498 .213 1.081 1.916

- State the null and research hypotheses. Write in full and complete sentences (4 points).

Null:

Research:

- What are the results of Levene’s test? (Note: do not just say pass or fail/reject or fail to reject. Say what we can or cannot assume) (3 points).
- State the obtained t-value for the t-test (3 points).
- Make a decision regarding the null hypothesis, explain how you made your decision, and interpret your findings (5 points).

For questions 17-26, use the following scenario.

In a sample of juvenile offenders sent to boot camp, a juvenile probation officer is examining the relationship between number of prior police contacts before participating in the boot camp and number of offenses after participating in the boot camp. Calculate the correlation coefficient and conduct a hypothesis test to examine whether there is a significant relationship between number of prior police contacts and number of subsequent offenses.

Number of Prior Police Contacts (X) Number of Offenses (Y)

3 2

4 5

7 4

1 0

0 1

0 3

5 4

3 5

- State the null and research hypotheses. Write in full and complete sentences (4 points).

Null:

Research:

- Calculate the correlation coefficient for the relationship between number of prior police contacts and number of offenses (5 points).

Number of Prior Police Contacts (X) Number of Offenses (Y) XY x2 y2

3 2

4 5

7 4

1 0

0 1

0 3

5 4

3 5

x = y = xy = x2 = y2 = - State the strength and the direction of the relationship between number of prior police contacts and number of offenses (4 points).
- Calculate the coefficient of determination. What percentage of the variation in number of offenses can be explained by number of prior police contacts? (4 points).
- Calculate the obtained t-value (5 points).
- Calculate the degrees of freedom and using a significance level of .05, obtain a critical t-value (3 points).
- Make a decision regarding the null hypothesis, explain how you came to this decision, and interpret your findings (5 points).
- Regardless of the conclusion of the hypothesis test, the juvenile probation officer wishes to create a regression line and use the number of prior police contacts to predict the number of subsequent offenses. Calculate the slope coefficient for this regression line (5 points).

Number of Prior Police Contacts (X) Number of Offenses (Y) XY x2

3 2

4 5

7 4

1 0

0 1

0 3

5 4

3 5

x = y = xy = x2 = - Calculate the y-intercept for the regression line (4 points).
- What is the predicted number of offenses for a boot camp participant who had 2 prior police contacts before being sent to the boot camp? (3 points).

Sample Solution

Text see of this exposition: This page of the exposition has 2111 words. Download the full form above. The United States is home to the absolute generally infamous and productive chronic executioners ever. Names, for example, Ted Bundy, Gary Ridgeway, and the Zodiac Killer have become commonly recognized names because of the terrible idea of their violations. One of the most productive chronic executioners in American history is John Wayne Gacy. Nicknamed the Killer Clown on account of his calling, Gacy assaulted and killed in any event 33 adolescent young men and youngsters somewhere in the range of 1972 and 1978, which is one of the most elevated realized casualty tallies. Gacy's story has become so notable that his violations have been highlighted in mainstream society and TV shows, for example, American Horror Story: Hotel and Criminal Minds. Measurable science has, and proceeds to, assume a significant part in the addressing of the case and recognizable proof of the people in question. John Wayne Gacy's set of experiences of sexual and psychological mistreatment was instrumental in provoking examiner's curiosity of him as a suspect. John Wayne Gacy was brought into the world on March 17, 1942, in Chicago, Illinois. Being the lone child out of three kids, Gacy had a stressed relationship with his dad, who drank vigorously and was regularly damaging towards the whole family (Sullivan and Maiken 48). In 1949, a temporary worker, who was a family companion, would stroke Gacy during rides in his truck; nonetheless, Gacy never uncovered these experiences to his folks because of a paranoid fear of requital from his dad (Foreman 54). His dad's mental maltreatment proceeded into his young grown-up years, and Gacy moved to Las Vegas where he worked quickly in the rescue vehicle administration prior to turning into a funeral home specialist (Sullivan and Maiken 50). As a funeral home specialist, Gacy was vigorously associated with the treating cycle and conceded that one night, he moved into the final resting place of an expired high school kid and stroked the body (Cahill and Ewing 46). Stunned at himself, Gacy re-visitations of Chicago to live with his family and graduates from Northwestern Business College in 1963, and acknowledges an administration student position with Nunn-Bush Shoe Company. In 1964, Gacy is moved to Springfield and meets his future spouse, Marlynn Myers. In Springfield, Gacy has his subsequent gay experience when a collaborator shakily performed oral sex on him (London 11:7). Gacy moves to Waterloo, Iowa, and starts a family with Myers. Notwithstanding, after consistently undermining his better half with whores, Gacy submits his originally known rape in 1967 upon Donald Vorhees. In the coming months, Gacy explicitly manhandles a few different adolescents and is captured and accused of oral homosexuality (Sullivan and Maiken 60). On December 3, 1968, Gacy is indicted and condemned to ten years at the Anamosa State Penitentiary. Gacy turns into a model prisoner at Anamosa and is allowed parole in June of 1970, an only a short time after his condemning. He had to migrate to Chicago and live with his mom and notice a 10:00PM time limit. Not exactly a year later, Gacy is accused again of explicitly attacking an adolescent kid yet the young didn't show up in court, so the charges were dropped. Gacy was known by numerous individuals in his locale to be an energetic volunteer and being dynamic in network governmental issues. His function as "Pogo the Clown" the jokester started in 1975 when Gacy joined a nearby "Carefree Joker" comedian club that routinely performed at raising support occasions. On January 3, 1972, Gacy submits his first homicide of Timothy McCoy, a 16-year old kid making a trip from Michigan to Omaha. Asserting that McCoy went into his room using a kitchen blade, Gacy gets into an actual fight with McCoy prior to wounding him over and over in the chest. Subsequent to understanding that McCoy had absentmindedly strolled into the live with the blade while attempting to plan breakfast, Gacy covers the body in his unfinished plumbing space. Gacy conceded in the meetings following his capture that slaughtering McCoy gave him a "mind-desensitizing climax", expressing that this homicide was the point at which he "understood demise was a definitive rush" (Cahill and Ewing 349). Right around 2 years after the fact, Gacy submits his second homicide of a unidentified young person. Gacy choked the kid prior to stuffing the body in his wardrobe prior to covering him (Cahill 349). In 1975, Gacy's business was developing rapidly and his hunger for youngsters developed with it. Gacy frequently tricked youngsters under his work to his home, persuading them to place themselves in binds, and assaulting and tormenting them prior to choking them (Cahill 169-170). A large portion of Gacy's killings occurred somewhere in the range of 1976 and 1978, the first of this time occurring in April 1976. Huge numbers of the young people that were killed during this time were covered in an unfinished plumbing space under Gacy's home. For the rest of the killings, Gacy confessed to losing five bodies the I-55 extension into the Des Plaines River; be that as it may, just four of the bodies were ever recuperated (Linedecker 152). In December 1978, Gacy meets Robert Jerome Piest, a 15-year old kid working at a drug store and offers him an employment at Gacy's firm. Piest educates his mom regarding this and neglects to restore that night. The Piest family documents a missing individual's report and the drug specialist illuminates police that Gacy would doubtlessly be the man that Jerome addressed about a work. When addressed by the police, Gacy denied any association in Piest's vanishing. In any case, the police were not persuaded, and Gacy's set of experiences of sexual maltreatment and battery provoked the police to look through his home. Among the things found at Gacy's home were a 1975 secondary school class ring with the initials J.A.S., various driver's licenses, binds, apparel that was excessively little for Gacy, and a receipt for the drug store that Piest had worked at. Throughout the following not many days, examiners got numerous calls and tips about Gacy's rapes and the strange vanishings of Gacy's representatives. The class ring was at last followed back to John A. Szyc, one of Gacy's casualties in 1977. Futhermore, after looking at Gacy's vehicle, examiners found a little bunch of filaments looking like human hair, which were shipped off the labs for additional examination. That very night, search canines were utilized to distinguish any hint of Piest in Gacy's vehicle, and one of the canines showed that Piest had, indeed, been available in the vehicle. On December 20, 1977, under the pressure of steady police reconnaissance and examination, Gacy admits to more than 30 killings and educates his legal counselor and companion where the bodies were covered, both in the unfinished plumbing space and the waterway. 26 casualties were found in the unfinished plumbing space and 4 in the stream. Gacy is captured, indicted for 33 homicides, and condemned to death by deadly infusion. He endeavored a madness supplication however was denied, and was executed on May 10, 1994. There were a few legal markers that agents used to attach Gacy to the killings. A portion of these include fiber investigation, dental and radiology records, utilizing the disintegration cycle of the human body, and facial reproduction in distinguishing the people in question. Examiners discovered filaments that looked like human hair in both Gacy's vehicle and close to the unfinished plumbing space where the bodies were covered. Notwithstanding these hair tests, specialists likewise discovered filaments that contained hints of Gacy's blood and semen in a similar region. Blood having a place with the casualties was found on a portion of the strands, which would later straightforwardly attach Gacy to the wrongdoings. The filaments in Gacy's vehicle were dissected by criminological researchers and coordinated Piest's hair tests. Moreover, the hunt canines that verified that Piest had been in Gacy's vehicle showed this by a "passing response", which told specialists that Piest's dead body had been within Gacy's vehicle. Out of Gacy's 33 known casualties, just 25 were ever decisively distinguished. A considerable lot of Gacy's casualties had comparative actual depictions and were hence difficult to recognize by simply asking people in general. To distinguish the people in question, examiners went to Betty Pat Gatliff, a pioneer in legal science and facial reproduction. Facial remaking is the way toward reproducing the facial highlights of a person by utilizing their remaining parts. Certain facial highlights, for example, facial structures, nasal structure, and in general face shape can be helpful in recognizing a casualty even long in the afterlife. By utilizing these highlights, and with the assistance of program, scientific examiners can make a picture of an individual's face, which is instrumental in recognizing casualties after their bodies have rotted. Facial remaking should be possible in a few measurements. Two-dimensional facial recreations is utilized with skull radiographs and depend on pre-demise photos and data. Nonetheless, this isn't really ideal on the grounds that cranial highlights are not generally obvious or at the correct scale (Downing). To get a sensible and more exact portrayal of the casualty's face, a craftsman and a scientific anthropologist are generally fundamental (Downing). Three-dimensional facial recreation is finished by figures or high goal, three-dimensional pictures. PC programs can make facial reproductions by controlling examined photos of the remaining parts and use approximations to reproduce facial highlights. These will in general deliver results that don't look fake (Reichs and Craig 491). Now and then, agents will utilize a strategy called superimposition as a procedure for facial remaking. Lamentably, it's anything but a usually utilized technique, as it expects examiners to have some information about the personality of the remaining parts they are managing. By superimposing a photo of a person over the skeletal remaining parts, examiners can check whether the facial highlights line up with the anatomical highlights, permitting them to distinguish a casualty. On account of John Wayne Gacy's casualties, specialists had the option to utilize facial reproduction to distinguish nine of the bodies found in the unfinished plumbing space. The accompanying realistic shows the facial recon>

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