You will explore some of the techniques you have learned thus far by examining data
on housing prices in the Seattle area in 2015. The data have been placed on Wattle. While
there are number of variables available, for this assignment you will only consider the following:
{ id: an id number for the house. Note: some house have been sold more than once.
{ price: the price that the house was sold at in USD
{ bedrooms: the number of bedrooms in the house
{ bathrooms: the number of bathrooms in the house
{ sqft.living: square footage of total living space

(a) Conduct an exploratory data analysis, where price is the response (y) and the
variables which may affect price are: bedrooms, bathrooms, and sqft.living. In doing your
analysis make sure to identify any unusual points and discuss why they are unusual.
(b) Is there a statistically significant correlation between price and sqft.living? Use
the cor.test() function to conduct a suitable hypothesis test. Clearly specify the hypotheses
you are testing and present and interpret the results.
(c) Experiment with applying natural log transformations (to the base e, which is the
default for the log() function in R) and square root transformations to one or both of price
and sqft.living, and repeat the analysis in parts (a) and (b). Do NOT show all of your results,
just pick whichever one you think is the best choice of scale for the two variables and show
and discuss the results for your chosen combination.
(d) Fit a simple linear regression (SLR) model with your chosen transformation of
price as the response variable and your chosen transformation of sqft.living as the predictor.
Construct a plot of the residuals against the tted values, a normal Q-Q plot of the residuals,
a bar plot of the leverages for each observation and a bar plot of Cook’s distances for each
observation. Use these plots (and other means) to comment on the model assumptions and
on any unusual data points.
(e) Produce the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) table for the SLR model in part (d)
and interpret the results of the F test. What is the coecient of determination for this model
and how should you interpret this summary measure?
(f) What are the estimated coecients of the SLR model in part (d) and the standard
errors associated with these coecients? Interpret the values of these estimated coecients
and perform t-tests to test whether or not these coecients dier signicantly from zero.
What do you conclude as a result of these t-tests?
(g) Consider two other simple linear regressions. One where x =bedrooms and one
where x =bathrooms. Use the same transformation for the response as you did in part (d) [if
you decided to use one]. Interpret these two models. How do these models compare to the
one in part (d)?
(h)Construct the following covariate in R which examines the number of bathrooms
and bedrooms per square foot of living space:
xi
=
sqft:livingi
bedroomsi + bathroomsi + 1
Fit a SLR using x. Use the same transformation for the response as you did in part (d) [if
you decided to use one]. Interpret the model. How do this model compare to the one in parts
(d) and (g)?

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

 

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.