Stem cells are the basis for every organ and tissue in our bodies. We continually rely on stem cells to replace and rejuvenate tissues lost every day, such as hair, blood, and skin. Currently researchers in this exciting field are working with patients suffering from a host of diseases and conditions that do not respond well to other therapies. These experimental procedures are termed “clinical trials” and are used to begin the study of how the human body responds to stem cell treatment. Early research is often done with laboratory animals, but success with animals does not always translate well into that same level of success with humans. Further research must be done to test both the safety and efficacy of the treatment for human patients before the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can approve the therapy.
Completing this activity will assist you in mastering Module Level Outcomes 2 and 3.
Review these assigned readings; they will serve as your scientific sources of accurate information:
• Understanding Stem Cells [PDF, file size 974 KB] from the National Academies.
• Nine Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
• How Science Becomes Medicine (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
• Fighting aging using stem cell therapy (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
• Stem cells in Texas: Cowboy culture (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
• Goldman, B. (2016) White coat, black art: Stem cell hype and risk (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. CBC Radio
• Kamenova, K., & Caulfield, T. (2015) Stem cell hype: Media portrayal of therapy translation (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Science Translational Medicine, V7, Issue 278, pp. 278
• Examine the Medical News Today (MNT) page on stem cells (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. . Under the blue banner “Featured news in this category,” you will see a list of links to recent stories about research in this area. Below this is another blue banner, “Featured reading in this category.” Select one article from either area.
Then, submit your responses to the following questions/prompts in your initial post:
• Give the title, publication date, and author of the MNT article you selected.
• Give the name of the scientist and the journal where the original research was published.
• Describe in 2-3 sentences what the MNT article tells us about this area of stem cell research.
• How reliable do you think this MNT report is, and why do you think this is the case?
• Did you find that the author of the MNT article used a lot of sensationalist terms and implied that people with this condition would be able to receive such a treatment very soon?
• If you or a family member was suffering from the condition you selected to examine, would you recommend they seek out stem cell therapy at this time? Why or why not?
Presentation This investigation is planning to inspect how extraordinary procedures and procedures are utilized in sociolinguistics as a method for change of the essayist's way of deliver in connection to his or her view of the recipient. This is a mind boggling procedure of progress inside the elements of discussion and composing. (Giles/Powesland 1975). It is regularly said that combination is by all accounts the standard in media dialect. For example, phonological highlights in radio telecom demonstrated that moderators utilize quantifiably more casual articulations in stations which principally address bring down class, less instructed, and more youthful audience members (Bell 1991. Ch.6). To the extent daily papers are concerned, the pursued exemplary speculation of assembly has been made by S. Corridor, who guarantees that there is a correspondence of maker/peruser, what he called the general population phrase of the media. In any case, this does not imply that the perusers really talk what they read or tune in to, yet there is proof to recommend that a combination happens and that each paper makes its very own union toward what it sees as a method of talk worthy to its readership (Hall 1978,61). Foundation RESEARCH Chime (1991.cb 6) has completed examination into determiner cancellation; that being words found inside the English Language that (which produces phrases like whiz Cher, newsagent's chief Martin Gilbert, Defense Secretary Michael Portillo (all from The Sun, January 6, 1996). A few investigations demonstrate that the cancellation of articles in such expressions recognizes tabloids from broadsheet British Newspapers. These are relationships with expected class and instruction and the erasure appears to suggest innovation, populism, and journalistic shocking quality. - Medienwissenschaft: ein Handbuch zur Entwicklung der Medien un Kommunikations formen Joaquin-Félix, Hans-Wemer Ludwig) (Media Science: A manual for the advancement of the media and correspondence frames) Ryden (1975) and Bell (1985) both research the utilization of thing phrase name juxtapositions in daily papers dialect and specifically the spread of expressions like Opposition pioneer Neil Knock with distinct thing phrase appositive without a determiner going before the name. This organization is generally later and is in Britain to a great extent however not by any stretch of the imagination limited to the two classes of newspaper papers - Social Stylistics: Syntactic variety in British Newspapers – Andreas H. Jucker- The impact of the peruser in daily paper style is upheld by the examination completed by Bell (1991) and Jucker (1989). Chime (1991: 107-108), in his examinations on naming articulations, expresses that this training was more typical in papers like "The Sun, The Mirror, The Express" than in "The transmit, The Guardian and The Times". The cancellations were found in more prominent numbers in papers providing food for lower financial classes. In the wake of concentrate the cancellation of determiners Jucker (1989) isolated British daily papers into three classes beneath. He found that determiners were erased more frequently in Down business sectors papers than in Midmarket papers, while there were not very many cancellations in style with a particular sort of peruser. Utilizing this data Jucker (1989) isolates British daily papers into three classifications: Up market: The Times, Financial Times, Guardian, Independent, Daily broadcast Midmarket: Daily Mail, Daily Express, Today Down-advertise: Daily Mirror, Star, Sun. The journalists referenced in this area all keep up that TABLOIDS and BROADSHEETS are distinctive in pretty much every way. - A Genre Approach to Re-Entry Patterns in Editorials – BARRY PENNOCK Procedure Numerous contemplations were taken as far as which strategy would be best to use with the end goal to do the examination concerning the utilization of determiners in the media. The main choice that must be made was which part of the media would be utilized as a hotspot for the examination. The choices went from TV programs, magazines, web sites, radio and daily papers. The selection of daily papers was made dependent on access to past research, referenced out of sight Research area of this report. The way that a comparative report had been completed by Bell et al in the correlation of determiner utilization between the distinctive sorts of daily paper gave a decent premise on which to base our own examination. Added to this is the interest of whether the outcomes got will have a comparative result to those gotten by these etymologists twenty years back. The following stage was to understand that with the end goal to contemplate determiners, a substance investigation was the main conceivable strategy that could be utilized. It was additionally a similar technique utilized by Bell et al. in their examination. Anyway there are numerous favorable circumstances and hindrances of utilizing this procedure that prompted numerous impediments to the down to earth side of the examination. It is decently tedious which can frequently restrain the scientist to a littler example than a less tedious strategy. The shot for a wiggle room is expanded especially if social examination is utilized. This examination requires a dimension of social investigation, that being the presumption of what by the present standard of English considers a missing determiner and what does not; which constrains the legitimacy of the outcomes, particularly if the aim is to straightforwardly think about the outcomes found by Bell et al. It is additionally hard to modernize and along these lines the outcomes acquired must be physically computerized which adds to the aggregate time utilization that utilizing an advanced substance examination could maybe have stayed away from. Our examination in this manner started right off the bat by choosing various diverse daily papers to look at. This was finished by at first choosing an equivalent number of British papers that are considered 'heavyweight' daily papers, i.e. The Times, The Guardian, The Daily Telegraph, and an equivalent number of newspaper or 'center market' daily papers, for example, The Daily Mail and the 'redtops',, for example, The Sun and The Daily Star. The six papers previously mentioned were picked from those accessible from the University Shop on grounds, with every class of daily paper spoke to and to be utilized in correlation with one another. They were then gathered into the review classes: Group 1 incorporated The Times, The Daily Telegraph and The Guardian; Group 2 incorporated The Sun, The Daily Mail and The Daily Star. Our theory, that less determiners will be erased from the papers in Group 1 than the sum erased from Group 2, was then settled on. Then again there are numerous favorable circumstances to utilizing content investigation, for example, the way that it can consolidate quantitative and subjective tasks through the capacity to see obviously the setting of the cancellation or consideration. This strategy likewise has not very many moral issues as it is accessible to people in general and no authorization is required with the end goal to get to it. It is additionally an extremely subtle methods for examining the utilization of the English Language. It is likewise solid as this examination has been done previously and can be rehashed by the equivalent or different specialists. After the daily papers were chosen the explicit subtle elements of how this substance examination would be done was then settled upon. It was chosen that two articles would be investigated from every one of the six papers; one with respect to a political subject and the other focussing on game. This was done with the end goal to right off the bat watch if there was any distinction between the employments of determiners between the papers and afterward furthermore if there was a distinction inside the diverse papers when the topic was extraordinary. Unmistakably with the end goal to expand the legitimacy of this exploration the daily papers broke down would have to all be taken from a similar date and afterward the articles picked were to be about a similar subject inside governmental issues and game. The daily papers were in this way gathered for investigation on the sixth May 2010 and the comparable accounts of the day in the two branches of knowledge were then broke down. It was chosen that the features and slogans of the considerable number of articles would be incorporated into the examination. Anyway it was perceived that features when all is said in done will in general have determiner erasures as standard. After the articles were chosen the correct procedure of working out the determiner erasure was settled on. Right off the bat the article word length was tallied and recorded, at that point the whole article was dissected and every one of the determiners inside the article were featured and totalled. At that point a second investigation of each article was completed with the end goal to find where the determiners were absent as per Standard English practice. These would again be totalled and recorded in a spread sheet where the quantity of determiners which have been erased would be determined as a level of the aggregate determiners that could have been utilized in the whole article. Albeit each measure has been taken to enhance the unwavering quality, legitimacy and viable issues presented by any strategy for research, this investigation isn't without its confinements. Right off the bat not every one of the factors can be controlled. Right off the bat, the sex of the columnist whom had composed each article isn't being considered. This implies the outcomes acquired could be diminished in legitimacy, because of the way that sexual orientation could have an impact over the measure of determiners utilized inside the articles. In a comparable vein, the age of the columnist is additionally obscure, which could correspondingly have an effect upon the measure of determiners utilized or erased. It is additionally a genuinely emotional investigation and almost certainly, some determiner erasures could be neglected relying on the scientist completing the examination. With the end goal to enhance this constraint a similar individual will complete the substance investigation on every one of the papers. Because of the tedious idea of this technique as previously mentioned the example estimate must be held very little to three daily papers of the two distinct classifications. This lessens the representativeness of the investigation as not the sum total of what daily papers have been broke down consequently it is likely improbable that any speculations can be produced using this examination –>GET ANSWER