In “The China Study” Chapter 1 titled “Problems We Face, Solutions We Need,” which of the following is/are true? You are allowed to select one or more answers.
Men in the U.S. die from cancer more frequently than women.
Obesity and diabetes in the U.S. has decreased over the past few decades.
Cancer kills more people in the U.S. than any other disease.
Better attention to nutrition may prevent chronic diseases and thus lower the 7% of hospitalized patients in the U.S. that have adverse reactions to drugs used to treat later stages of these chronic diseases.
Compared to many other developed countries, the U.S. spends more per person on healthcare.
The U.S.currently spends 10% of gross domestic product (GDP) on healthcare.
Material presented in “The China Study” is based on many years of scientific studies published in peer-reviewed journals and does not involve fad diets.
After reading “The China Study” Chapter 3 titled “Turning Off Cancer,” please match the following laboratory rat experiment treatments with the results from each experiment.
20% animal protein diet + carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure.
5% animal protein diet + carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure.
20% animal protein diet + NO carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure.
5% animal protein diet + NO carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure.
20% wheat protein (gluten) or 20% soy protein diet.
a. Cancer development with foci response of ~90.
b. Increased frequency of cancer development compared to 5% animal protein diet + NO carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure with a cancer foci response of ~3.
c. Relatively less cancer development compared to the 20% animal protein diet + carcinogenic aflatoxin exposure with a cancer foci response of ~10.
d. No cancer development since plant-based.
e. Virtually no cancer development with foci response of ~1.
In “The China Study” Chapter 4 titled “Lessons from China,” during the early 1970’s a comprehensive survey of death rates from 12 different types of cancer was conducted by
million of China’s citizens in
counties which was
percent of the country’s total population at the time. Please do NOT include commas in your numerical responses.
After reading “The China Study” Chapter 4 titled “Lessons from China,” please match the following that are the most associated with each other.
Diseases of affluence.
Diseases of poverty.
High consumption of diverse plant-based foods and low consumption of animal-based foods.
Greater intake of plant-based protein (e.g. soy, wheat protein, etc.) to enhance a foundation of other plant-based foods.
High animal-food (animal fat and animal protein) intake.
a. Pneumonia and tuberculosis, non-cancerous digestive diseases, parasitic infections.
b. Low blood cholesterol, high fiber intake without reducing iron absorption, anti-oxidants.
c. Higher rates of cancer.
d. Cancer, diabetes, heart disease.
e. Greater height and greater body weight.
After reading “The China Study” Chapter 5 titled “Broken Hearts,” a diversified whole-foods, plant-based diet with very low levels of animal foods (and thus low levels of animal protein and fat) is __ at reducing the incidence of heart disease and heart attacks with less side effects compared to traditional Western methods involving triple bypasses, stents, and cholesterol lowering drugs.
a. Least effective
b. Less effective
c. Neither ineffective nor effective
d. More effective
e. Most effective
f. Not applicable
In “The China Study” Chapter 6 titled “Obesity”, which of the following is/are true? You are allowed to select one or more answers.
If Sensei is 5’3” (63 inches tall) and weighs 145 pounds, he is technically overweight.
If Sensei is 5’3” (63 inches tall) and weighs 145 pounds, his weight is normal.
Being overweight or obese for both children and adults has both social and health impacts with significant medical care costs.
Eating a whole-foods, plant-based diet low in animal protein and fat can result in significant short-term and long-term weight loss and the ability to maintain a healthy normal weight.
Vegetarians consume less calories than meat eaters and thus are slimmer.
Eating a whole-foods, plant-based diet low in animal protein and fat tends to store calories as fat and discourages physical activity making it more difficult to be physically active.
Eating a whole-foods, plant-based diet low in animal protein and fat tends to discharge calories as body heat and encourages physical activity making it easier to be physically active.
After reading “The China Study” Chapter 8 titled “Common Cancers: Breast, Prostate, Large Bowl (Colon and Rectal),” please order the following statements in chronological order.
About 1 in 500 (0.2%) of women are born with the mutated forms of the BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 genes that genetically predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers. The other 99.8% of women are not born with mutated forms of these genes.
After watching “The Trouble with Chicken” video, which of the following is/are true? You are allowed to select one or more answers.
a. Outbreaks of anti-biotic resistant Samonella poisoning in the U.S. typically result in sickness followed by death.
b. The chicken processors highlighted in “The Trouble with Chicken” video involving outbreaks of anti-biotic resistant Samonella are Foster Farms and Cargill.
c. Traditional USDA inspection techniques of checking for visual defects are adequate for dealing with anti-biotic resistant Samonella Heidelberg in chicken.
d. Testing for Samonella Heidelberg in chicken was successful since sampled chicken were exclusively from chicken parts packages and not whole chickens.
e. Despite rapid spread of Samonella outbreaks in 26 states, USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) required both 1) frozen remnants of chicken during the time of the outbreaks combined with 2) specific genetic matching for this food bourne pathogen in order to authorize a recall.
Which of the following option(s) are example(s) of ECONOMIC strategies that can reduce the negative social and environmental externalities of the industrial food system? You can select one or more answer(s).
a. Consumer education (e.g. everyone in the U.S. reads “The China Study”).
b. Taxes on industrial feedlot beef (e.g. assess a $5/lb tax on pink slime).
c. Subsidize smaller diversified farms in the U.S. following the Polyface model (e.g. shift Federal subsidies from large industrial monoculture farms to local/regional farms like Polyface farm in Virginia and Tide Mill Farm in Maine).
d. Create standards such as regulations on how much chemical fertilizers farms can use per acre.
e. Proceed with class action lawsuits on farm industries that result in lots of non-point source pollution (e.g. sue the North Carolina hog industry and Smithfield Foods, Inc.).
f. Create regional cap and trade programs where groups of farmers can buy and sell permits to emit greenhouse gases such as CO2 from farm equipment and CH4 from ruminant livestock.
g. Price food by the pound as some restaurants do in Brazil.
An economic strategy listed in Question 14 that can be levied and used to reverse negative social and environmental impacts of the industrial food system are
Applying corporate average fuel economy (CAFE)
to farm trucks would be another example of an economic strategy to reduce negative social and environmental externalities of Tier III, IV and V food systems.
system is difficult to apply to correct negative social and environmental externalities of industrial food systems since much of the pollution associated with these systems are “non-point” in nature. Also, there are a large number of farmers making such transactions between farmers proposed by this economic policy more challenging.
, incentives are created to consume less food in general which broadly reduces the negative social and environmental externalities of food. This type of economic policy does not target specific foods with more negative environmental and social impacts nor does it require consumers to become more aware about the impacts that their food choices have on people and the environment.