From the Roman Empire, three Heirs emerged during the 5th-7th Centuries. These three successors (Byzantine, the Islamic, and the Western Europe) had developed with distinctive culture, religion, and language. They quickly became rivals within a short period.
Byzantium civilization that took place around the 5th Century descended from the Roman Empire on its Eastern half. This happened because they had Constantinople capital that made them economically rich and stable; hence, could look for slaves and easily go for wars. It was a combination of Roman Imperial traditions of governments with a serious pursuit of an orthodox form of Christian faith (Lualdi 800). This was a building tool for their stability as it combined them together. This orthodox religion spread into Russia and Eastern Europe at the time of Kevin Rus and Appanage that occurred in 882-1240AD and 1054-1480AD respectively (Lualdi 820).
Islamic development and civilization was founded in the 7th Century. It was spearheaded by Mohamed, who was believed to be a prophet and the head. This group spoke Arabic language; they were made strong because the government and culture infused with this vibrant new religion. It created a big empire in the old near East, around the African coast of the Mediterranean, and it spread widely into the Indian subcontinent (Lualdi 840). Their culture and religion were too strong that they influenced people along Mediterranean coast, thereby enhancing stability of the group.
Western Europe that was founded around the 6th Century; they spoke Latin language for the educated, who in most cases, were clergymen (Lualdi 960). The laity people spoke vernacular languages that originated from Germanic or Latin tongues. They had a slow civilization as compared to Islamic and Byzantium, since their governmental structure and economy were weak. It slowly shifted towards religious and political cohesiveness based on Christianity. Through Christian religion, it became expansionistic, dynamic, and creative during the middle ages.
Lualdi, Katharine J. Sources of the Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2009. Print.