CASE: The Sleepiness Epidemic
Ronit Rogosziniski, a financial planner, loses sleep because of her 5 a.m. wake-up call, so she sneaks to
her car for a quick lunchtime snooze each day. She is not alone, as evidenced by the comments on Wall
Street Oasis, a website frequented by investment bankers who blog about their travails. Should the
legions of secret nappers be blessed or cursed by their organizations for this behavior? Research
suggests they should be encouraged.
Sleep is a problem, or rather, lack of quality zzz’s is a costly organizational problem we can no longer
overlook. Sleepiness, a technical term in this case that denotes a true physiological pressure for sleep,
lowers performance, and increases accidents, injuries, and unethical behavior. One survey found that 29
percent of respondents slept on the job, 12 percent were late to work, 4 percent left work early, and 2
percent did not go to work due to sleepiness. While sleepiness affects 33 percent of the U.S. population,
the clinical extreme, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), is fully debilitating to an additional 11 percent.
In a vicious cycle where the effects of sleepiness affect the organization, which leads to longer work
hours and thus more sleepiness, the reason for the sleepiness epidemic seems to be the modern
workplace. Full-time employees have been getting less sleep over the past 30 years as a direct result of
longer work days, putting them more at risk for sleep disorders. Sleepiness directly decreases attention
span, memory, information processing, affect, and emotion regulation capabilities. Research on sleep
deprivation has found that tired workers experience higher levels of back pain, heart disease,
depression, work withdrawal, and job dissatisfaction. All these outcomes have significant implications
for organizational effectiveness and costs. Sleepiness may account for $14 billion of medical expenses,
up to $69 billion for auto accidents, and up to $24 billion in workplace accidents in the United States
Although being around bright light and loud sounds, standing, eating, and practicing good posture can
reduce sleepiness temporarily, there is only one lasting cure: more hours of good-quality sleep. Some
companies are encouraging napping at work as a solution to the problem, and one survey of 600
companies revealed that 6 percent had dedicated nap rooms. In addition, in a poll of 1,508 workers
conducted by the National Sleep Foundation, 34 percent said they were allowed to nap at work. These
policies may be a good start, but they are only Band-Aid approaches since more and better sleep is
what’s needed. Researchers suggest that organizations should consider flexible working hours and
greater autonomy to allow employees to maximize their productive waking hours. Given the high costs
of sleepiness, it’s time for them to take the problem much more seriously

B.) Question 1: Should organizations be concerned about the sleepiness of their employees?
Question 2: What factors influencing sleep might be more or less under the control of an organization?
Question 3: How might sleep deprivation influence aspects of expectancy theory?
Question 4: How might the incorporation of “nap rooms” for sleep-deprived employees demonstrate aspects of equity theory?
Question 5: If you were a manager who noticed your employees were sleep-deprived, what steps might you take to help them?
Question 6: What theories of motivation could you use to help them?




Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.