Define Key Terms: 1.Bill of Rights 2.constitutional political system 3.constitutionalization 4.Due Process Clause 5.Fourteenth Amendment 6.judicial review 7.new judicial federalism 8.presumption of regularity 9.retroactivity of judicial decisions 10.selective incorporation 11.selective incorporation plus 12.selective prosecution 13. supervisory authority 14.Supremacy Clause 15.total incorporation 16. total incorporation plus Answer question in complete sentences: 1.Describe the reasons for creating a constitutional political system in the United States. What provisions regarding criminal procedure are included in the body of the Constitution? Give some examples of the rights contained in the Bill of Rights. 2.Discuss the importance of the U.S. Constitution and the Supreme Court as sources of criminal procedure. Describe the role of state courts and state constitutions as a source of criminal procedure. 3.What is meant by nationalization or “constitutionalization” of criminal procedure? 4. Explain the difference between various approaches to determining the “fundamental rights” that the Fourteenth Amendment extends to the states: fundamental fairness, total incorporation, and selective incorporation. 5. What provisions of the Bill of Rights are incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment? What provisions of the Bill of Rights are not incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment? 6. Discuss equal protection, the presumption of regularity, and prosecutorial discretion in charging criminal defendants with a criminal offense. 7. What is the rule regarding the retroactivity of Supreme Court judgments? 8. Distinguish between the Crime Control Model and the Due Process Model of criminal procedure. Why is “procedural justice��� important?
ndependent Muslim nation. The Khilafat Committee in Bombay started a fund to help the Turkish nationalist struggle, establishing contact with a representative of Kamal in Constantinople who received constant letters of encouragement. Part of the Indian Muslims fund, which eventually amounted to some 125,000 pounds was used to pay the army. (Ali, 2001) When Mustfa Kamal dislodged Greek forces from Turkish territories in 1921 he was highly applauded by the leaders of the All India Muslim League and they passed a resolution in this regard in the December. He emancipated the Turkish areas completely from the European control in 1922 and declared Turkey as an independent Republic and became the president of Modern Turkey in the same year until his death in November 1938. He tried to bring revolutionary changes in the Modern Turkey. He instituted new education system and introduced many reforms in all fields and departments of life to bring his country at par with the Modern Europe. He encouraged and promoted the modern European life style in Turkey. During his political career Quaid I Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah minutely observed the developments in the Muslim world especially in the modern Turkey of the ancient Ottoman Empire. Quaid e Azam eulogized the services of Mustfa Kamal in these words, ‘ He was the greatest leader of the modern Islamic World and entire Mulsim Ummah will profoundly mourn his death.’ In December 1938, during his presidential address in the 27th session of All India Muslim League at Patna, Muhammad Ali Jinnah paid his heartiest homage to this charismatic leader of Turkey in these words, ‘Another great figure; a world figure, who passed away is Mustafa Kamal Ataturk. His death has come as the great blow to the Muslim world. He was the foremost figure in the Muslim East’ (Haq, 2010). 1.2 Pakistan-Turkey Relations after Partition The year 1947 is to be known as very crucial period in the history of the world, on one hand the old order started crumbling with the partition of Europe in two separate spheres. On other side w>GET ANSWER