The teacher’s role in the learning process is well-documented and supported through educational research. The support provided to children through differentiated instruction, scaffolding, and authentic learning provide environments in a language arts setting to encourage achievement and growth. Why do teachers need to differentiate instruction reading instruction? Find 1 peer-reviewed journal article to support differentiation in one of the 3 areas and to support the module readings: 1) differentiation in the reading classroom, 2) with English language learners in the reading classroom, or 3) with struggling learners in the reading classroom.
aving used the Pettigrew and Whipp (1993) model, it was clear that there are weaknesses around the model which was also evident when used for the organisational change example within my experience. To address these weaknesses another OCM model, that by Beer and Nohria (2000) can be used. Dimension of Change Theory E (Hard) Theory O (Soft) Combined E & O Goals Maximise Shareholder Value Develop organisational capabilities Embrace the paradox of the two Leadership Manage Change from top to down Encourage participation from all colleagues Initiate from top and engage Focus Emphasise system and service routine Improve employees’ behavior/attitude Focus simultaneously on both Process Establish clear timelines and checkpoints Trial and Error – see what works best Pan for spontaneity Reward System Motivate through financial incentive Motivate through commitment Incentive to reinforce Vs Drive Use of Consultants Consultants analyse data regularly/solutions Consultant support management with reactive problems Use as empowering experts Figure 2: Adapted from Beer & Nohria’s Theory E and Theory (2000) As seen in Figure 2, the same organisational change of till replacements has been mapped using the Beer and Nohria model. This helps the hierarchical decision makers to see and choose how they want to combine Theory E and O for the “best” approach having seen the whole range. “E” stands for Economic value and “O” stands for Organisational capability. Beer and Nohria suggest that increasingly ‘shareholder value is the only legitimate measure of corporate success’ (2000, p. 134), but propose that a combination of Theory E and Theory O is the most effective option (The Open University 2018). As shown in Figure 2, the till replacement OCM model now involves focusing on Economic and human aspects which was missing in the Pettigrew and Whipp (1993) model. The till replacement change, via this model, now looks at the goal from top level and enables one to weigh the Economic benefit i.e. shareholder return Vs Operational capability pursuit. This shows the range of results for the decision makers and the directors to decide and find the “right” balance to deliver the result for which the whole change has been started from the onset. The same also applies to leadership category where a store manager would be expected to lead and deliver it single handedly the project but there are only a finite number of hours a store manager can work through so there is a clear need for identifying key colleagues in team and empowering them be part of the change at each store level. Sturdy and Grey (2003), in their article, also critique this model. I ag>GET ANSWER