Employing the concepts of immanence and transcendence from Simone de Beauvoir’s The
Second Sex, please provide a brief existential interpretation of the struggles around gender and sexuality
presented in Gioria Anzaldua’s Borderlands/La Frontera. Does the crucial fact of coloniality make any
difference between Anzaldua’s and De Beauvoir’s classic texts?
because they believe the universe exists within the ideas of the people involved in it. ‘Though constructivism offers no picture of what the world is like, it pushes enquiry into the processes by which humans construct understandings’. From a constructivist point of view 9/11 took place because of a constructed identity which is antipathy for ‘the west’ and also an organizations desire to construct a new identity, one of a pan-Islamic movement. Lynch uses the basic tenets of constructivism which we discussed as ‘ideas, identities and norms’ to show how Al-Qaeda’s strategy post-9/11 lends itself to constructivist understanding. According to Lynch “Al-Qaeda’s strategy seeks to promote an Islamic ‘identity’, define the ‘interests’ of all Muslims as necessarily in confrontation with the West, and shape the ‘normative environment in which Muslim politics are contested”. Sayf al-Adel, an al-Qaeda strategist argued in a March 2005 interview that the “attack of 9/11 had succeeded in its primary goal of enticing the United states into direct interventions in the Arab region”. This clearly shows why constructivists consider a transnational group with ideological influence to be an eligible actor on the political stage. Terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda lend themselves to constructivist understanding because unlike the other IR theories constructivists see structures and actors as mutually constituted. This is because it is not always that the structure determines states interests and actions but sometimes agents can influence the nature and the effects of a structure. David Schild uses the case study of Al Qaeda in his dissertation piece to argue that we can use constructivism to understand the activities of Al Qaeda and this highlights the “value and appropriateness” of constructivist enquiry. Through this analysis of Al-Qaeda, David Schild gains insight into how contemporary terrorism functions. A key part of his constructivist analysis is the examination of the agent-structure relationship as “it is concerned with the patterned manner in which norms (ideational structures) and the identities, interests and resultant actions of agents interact”. In the case of Al Qaeda then, when you examine how ideational concerns influence action and vice versa then tentative generalizations can be made regarding the functioning of the terrorist organization and in turn of terrorism in general. Similar to how constructivists have no picture of the world, Al-Qaeda has no territorial picture of its own, therefore it allows state actors to construct it for themselves. Lynch argued this point saying “Al Qaeda’s constructivism derives both from structural factors- absence of a territorial base, a globalized field of contention shaped by the new media and information technologies- and Islamist ideas themselves”. Therefore the functi>GET ANSWER