Compare and contrast the four types of memory discussed in this week’s readings.
Memory is the result of learning and the new information acquired in the process; this can happen from a single exposure to an experience, or from repetitive information, actions, or experiences (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). The encoding, or processing of information, can happen at multiple stages. Acquisition usually occurs in the initial stages of processing, where sensory information is selected for further use and becomes utilized in short term or working memory (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Consolidation is a type of encoding that typically happens when information is worked through short term memory and is passed along for future use; consolidation is the process of forming new neural connections, strengthening old connections, or modifying connections in order to accommodate new learning (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Once memories are acquired and consolidated, they will be stored in various parts of the brain for safekeeping. If memories are stored correctly, they will be available for retrieval later and will provide the relevant information for making decisions or guiding behavior.
Sensory memory is the first type of memory, and the initial stage of processing sensory input from the various modalities into what will eventually become memories (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Neural synapses, such as the optic synapse, can process a vast amount of raw information, but only some of the information is processed (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). The subcortical sensory systems hold onto the information for less than a second in what is known as the sensory buffer (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). During that brief time, the brain must decide what sensory information is relevant and disregard the rest in order to avoid processing bottlenecks. While sensory memory is not conscious, the selection of sensory information will often be impacted by selective attention and be geared toward gaining information needed for a goal-oriented behavior (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Sensory memory is the ground floor for the formation of all further processing.
Short term memory, which consists of briefly held sensory information, both audio and visual, is used for the performance of executive functions using working memory (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). This is the second type of memory, and it is used consistently in every day decisions, behaviors, and as part of the memory encoding process. According to the working memory system of Baddeley and Hitch, working memory consists of a central executive mechanism that coordinates the manipulation and maintenance of the available visual and audio information (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Portions of the lateral frontal and parietal lobe in the left hemisphere process and maintain audio information by performing a phonological loop; repeating the words, numbers, and any other audio input in order to maintain it in the short term memory (Carter et al., 2009). Portions of the inferolateral frontal cortex help maintain short term verbal memory, while the inferior frontal, posterior parietal, and extrastriate cortex in the occipital lobe bilaterally maintain spatial information for working memory (Carter et al., 2009). Much of this process is automatic, though one may have conscious awareness of the mental process involved in the executive function of their working memory. Ultimately, the central executive mechanism holds all of the necessary information it needs to perform a task. If the task or experience is repeated often, there will be an increased chance of it being encoded into long term memory.
Long term memory consists of two types of memory; declarative, or explicit memory, and nondeclarative, or implicit memory (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). The third type of memory is declarative memory, which is information that can be recalled consciously; this is divided further into two particular types of conscious memories. Episodic memories are memories about events or experiences, and are always recollections from the first person with context of the circumstances surrounding the event (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Often, episodic memories contain multiple sensory perspectives such as what color the sky was or what kind of food was served at a party. Semantic memories are facts, dates, concepts and other general knowledge; this information is necessary for executive function, which relies on stored knowledge to guide behavior and logic (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Knowing how to tell time or do algebra are both examples of semantic memories. The hippocampal memory structures, which are located in and around the medial temporal lobe, are critical for the transformation of experiences into new episodic and semantic memories (Carter et al., 2009). Patients without this portion of their brain, such as patient H.M., are unable to form new memories, a condition known as anterograde amnesia, yet are able to learn new procedural memories and retain old memories (Gazzaniga et al., 2019).
Non-declarative, or implicit memories, are not conscious memories and are the fourth type of memory. Non-declarative memories include procedural memories, conditioning responses, non-associated behaviors and perceptual priming (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Procedural memories include actions like riding a bike, swimming, and reading, which require a lot of repetition and experience; once rehearsed enough, they become automatic behaviors that the brain can perform without conscious thought(Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Memory of learned skills is stored in the putamen (part of the basal ganglia), instinctive behaviors like defensive behavior and grooming are stored in the caudate nucleus (part of the dorsal striatum), and the movements like walking that require body skills and coordination are stored in the cerebellum as procedural memory (Carter et al., 2009). On a neural level, the neurons which fire together in various parts of the brain to perform an action such as picking up a fork are activated so many times that the synapses become stronger and the behavior becomes encoded into procedural memory (Gazzaniga et al., 2019).
Other nondeclarative memories include conditioned responses, non-associated behaviors and perceptual priming. Perceptual priming, on an implicit level, primes the brain to think about a concept, image, sound, or fact, which then increases accuracy with recognizing the same or similar stimulus at a later time (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Research has shown that declarative and non-declarative memory operates on two different systems, allowing implicit responses from perceptual priming to occur without conscious knowledge or when there is damage to portions of the brain which control semantic memory (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Conditioned responses, as well as non-associated behaviors like habituation and sensitization, are unconscious adjustments in behavior to a stimulus (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). A person may become conditioned to crave coffee every morning at 9 am, for example, or become habituated (or desensitized) to the sound of their car engine and therefore not notice it as they drive. Finally, sensitization is an adaptive behavior that would cause a person to shield their eyes from the sun, for example, in order to avoid harming themselves.
Introduction Both mental and developmental disorders in childhood, refers to syndromes in neurological, emotional or behavioral development, with serious impact in psychological and social health of children (Nevo & Manassis., 2009). Children who suffer from these types of disorders, they need special support firstly from their close family environment and then from educational systems. In many case, the disorders continue to exist in adulthood (Scott et al., 2016). According to Murray and partners (2012), mental and developmental syndromes in childhood, are an emerging challenge for modern health care systems worldwide. The most common factors that tend to increase such syndromes in low and middle income countries, is the reduced mortality of children under the age of five and the onset of mental and developmental syndromes in adults during their childhood One of the most common mental disorders in children with developmental disorder is anxiety disorder. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, seven types of anxiety disorder are recognized both in childhood and adolescents. Among them are Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The aim of this study is, to present a common mental disorder that affects children with a developmental syndrome. Thus, try to present the clinical features, the prevalence and diagnostic issues in this population. 1. Mental disorders in children World Health Organization (WHO) has identified mental health disorders, as one of the main causes of disability globally (Murray & Lopez., 2002). According to the same source of evidence, childhood is a crucial life stage on the occurrence of mental disorders, which are likely to affect the quality of life, the learning and social level of a child. Within this framework, possible negative experiences at home like family conflicts or bullying incidents at school, may have a damaging effect on the development of children, and also in their core cognitive and emotional skills. Moreover, the socioeconomic conditions within some children grow up can also affects their choices and opportunities in adolescence and adulthood. On the other hand, children’s exposure in risk factors during early life, can significantly affect their mental health, even decades later. The coherences of such exposure can lead on high and periodically increasing rates of mental health, and also behavioral problems. In European Union countries, anxiety and depression syndromes are among top 5 causes of overall disease burden among children and adolescents. But, suicide is the most common cause of death between 10 to19-year-olds, mainly in countries with low- and middle-income and the second cause in high income countries (WHO, 2013-2020). 2. Anxiety disorder in children with neurodevelopmental disorder According to American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013), anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive or improper fear, which is connected with behavioral disorders that impair functional capacity. Furthermore, anxiety is characterized as a common human response in danger or threat and can be highly adaptive in case of elicited in an appropriate context. Is clinically important when anxiety is persistent and associated with impairment in functional capacity, or affects an individuals’ quality of life (Arlond et al., 2003). Especially in childhood, clinical characteristics of anxiety is complicated when complicated by developmental factors, due to the reason that some type of fears maybe characterizes as normative in certain age of groups (Gullone, 2000). Additionally, although a child is able of experiencing the emotional and physiologic components of anxiety at an early age, definite mental abilities may be prerequisites for the full expression of an anxiety disorder (Freeman et al., 2002). Within this framework, Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by excessive and developmental inappropriate anxiety, as a response to separation from the close family environment or from attached figures. The most common symptoms in such disorder are, anticipatory anxiety concerning with separation occasions, determined fears about losing or being separated 2.1. Anxiety disorder prevalence in children Although an essential body of data are available about the epidemiology of anxiety disorders, the evidence for prevalence presented are highly fragmented and the reports for prevalence varies considerably (Baxter et al., 2012). According to global epidemiological data evidence, mental disorders is a difficult task, due to significant absence of officially data for many geographical regions globally. These evidence are less in pediatric patients – children, particularly in low to middle income countries where other concerns are in the front line. The above issue of data absence, is highlighted in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (Whiteford et al., 2013). Childhood mental disorders epidemiologically data, were remain relatively constant during the 21 world regions defined by Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. However, these prevalence rates were based on sporadic data, for some disorders or no data for specific disorders in childhood. According to the12-month global prevalence of childhood mental disorders in 2010 is shown that, anxiety disorder rates were higher in adolescents between the age of 15 to 19 years old and especially in females (32,2% general rate, 3,74% in males and 7,02% in females). Moreover The anxiety disorder rates in children between the age of 5 to 9 years old were (5,4%) and 21,8% in children between the age of 10-14. In both groups of children, the percentages of prevalence were higher in females. These systematic reviews were then updated for GBD 2013, were the data for mental disorders in children and adolescents were sparse. This resulted in large uncertainty intervals around burden estimates despite mental disorders being found as the leading cause of disability in those aged under 25 years. Moreover, lack of absence of empirical data restricts the visibility of mental disorders in comparison with other diseases in childhood and makes it difficult to advocate for their inclusion as a priority in health initiatives 2.2. Anxiety disorder clinical features The main clinical features of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is, the inordinate and developmental inappropriate anxiety about separation from the home or from attachment figures. The leading symptoms of that type of mental disorder, refers to anticipatory anxiety regarding separation events, persistent concerns about losing or being separated from an attachment figure, school denial, unwillingness to stay alone in the home, or to sleep alone, recurrent nightmares with a separation theme, and somatic complaints. In particular, the clinical feature of school refusal has been reported to happen in about 75% of children with SAD, and also SAD occurs in 70%to 80% of children presenting with school refusal. In that case, epidemiologic studies exhibit that the rates of prevalence are from 3.5% to 5.1% with a mean age of onset from 4.3 to 8.0 years old (Masi et al., 2001). One area that has attracted considerable attention is the potential link between childhood SAD and panic disorder in adulthood. Indirect support for this hypothesis is provided by retrospective studies of adults with anxiety disorders. Furthermore, the developmental sequel between childhood anxiety disorders and panic disorders in adult age, is also supported by the biologic challenge study, of Pine et al. (2000). Researchers at this study found that, children who suffer from SAD (but not social phobia) they showed respiratory changes during carbon dioxide inhalation that which had common characteristics with adults’ panic attacks. In a similar study, children with SAD and parents who suffer with panic attacks, were found to have significant percentage of atopic disorders, including asthma and allergies (Slattery et al., 2002). On the other hand, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in childhood, is characterized by immoderate worry and stress about daily life events that the child is not able to control effectively. That anxiety is expressed on most days and has a duration for at least 6 months, and also there is an extended distress or difficulty in performing everyday processes (Gale & Millichamp., 2016).>GET ANSWER