Within this module, you learned about Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and gained additional insights about how to differentiate instruction. It has been suggested that UDL is one way of providing differentiation to students. To further explore these two ideas in relation to one another, read the following article that is available to you from the Barry Library:
van Garderen, D., & Whittaker, C. (2006). Planning differentiated, multicultural instruction for secondary inclusive classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(3), 12-20.
After reading the article, compare and contrast it to information you learned throughout this module. Write a one page paper (not including the cover and References pages) to present your findings.
is held briefly in the sensory memory,that is a temporary buffer memory (language learning trace can be visual in reading or auditory listening).From here certain pieces of information are passed to short-term memory,which is another temporary memory but at this level we are conscious of information and we can work with it.STM has a low capacity of storage (about 7 plus minus 2 chunks of information;Miller 1956) it decays as soon as it not longer attended to.To be holden information has to be encoded through active strategies as rehearse or visualisation,but then there is the transfert to the long-term memory.This is a permanent ,memory stoe with an extremely large capacity that could be unlimited,here stored information is recorded and can always be retrieved,it is organized according to meaning and is linked by associations.There is no limit the capacity of storing new information and this can be kept up to a life time.Only with the deterioration of brain system the storage retrieval capability can be lost.Permanent losses of information occurs just as a result of brain damages,failures of retrieval often are caused by temporary blockage.Just some of what we experience is attended for more the a few brief moments.Hence the storage process is not even activated.Using the metaphor of the human mind as a computer,cognitivists gave to short-term memory the title of Working memory.In 1974 Baddeley and Hitch proposed the Multi-component model of working memory.This model is composed of three main component:the central executive,the phonological loop and the visual-spatial sketch-pad.The central executive acts as supervisory system in controlling cognitive processes.It is responsible for the slave systems coordination.The slave systems are short-term storage systems which concern two separate perceptual domains,Phonogical loop and visual-spatial sketch-pad are respectively the verbal and the visual-spatial slave systems.Phonological loop has two sub-systems called phonological store and articulatory process and it deals with phonological information. Therefore language learning and processing working memory is involved at this level.The phonological store sub-system is assumed to be specialized to maintain verbal information that enters here automatically,because spoken language seems to have a direct access to the phonological store.This has a limited capacity of storage,it can hold acoustically coded items just for s brief period, in fact the trace decays in 1 or 2 seconds.For holding information we need to use strategies that can help us to encode it and to retain it.In words memorisation tasks for example the rehearsal mechanism allows us to transform spoken words into a phonological code,preventing them from decay.Rehearsal consists in sub-vocal repetition of the material,some kind of inner voice in our head.This mechanism in fact is used to convert written words into a phonological code,so that these can be insert into the phonological store.Written words are processed on a phonological basis in memorisation,being included in the same store of spoken words instead of a separate visual store as we could imagine.The visual-spatial sketch-pad endeed is implicated in visual and spatial tasks like location or movement of object in space or remembering visible features as shape and colour.It works like a sort of inner eye specialized on spatial and visual coding. 2-Memory and attention A great deal of everyday activities require the use of temporary memory.Encoding store and retrieval are the process on which we rely on for acting on day-to-day life.Making decisions,solving problems,social interactioning,language production are based on the ability of memorising.Performing a task from repeating foreign words to counting ,to remember where we parked our car demand the involvement of attention.Cowan’s embedded-process model of working memory illustrates the links between memory and attention.Our capacity of attention is limited,internal and external factors of distraction and individual faculties and abilities affect our attentional degree.The number of things we can focus at the same time is indefinite but information is activated only for a very brief period after which it decays.Information can be activated automatically,it is not always the focus of conscious necessary awareness.This can explain how it is possible to perform actions without the need of controlling their process.Voluntary processes and involuntary processes control both the focus of attention . This can explain how it is possible to perform actions without the need of controlling them process.The demand of conscious attention more depends on the familiarity degree with the process,as we become familiar with the process they are automatised step by step.More they become automatised less is the demand of attention.It is important to understand how memory and attention are involved in language learning. 3-Language learning researches Short-term memory is an on-line capacity for processing and elaborating new information,this is why it is responsible in language learning and development.For this reason second language acquisition researches are focused on short-term memory.Also for analysing the individual differences in language learning researches and to examine short-term capacity.Verbal short-term memory abilit>GET ANSWER