There are numerous questions that might be addressed in a process evaluation. These questions can be selected by carefully considering what is important to know about the program. Examples of questions to ask yourself when designing an evaluation to understand and/or closely examine the processes in your programs, are:
1. On what basis do employees and/or the customers decide that products or services are needed?
2. What is required of employees in order to deliver the product or services?
3. How are employees trained about how to deliver the product or services?
4. How do customers or clients come into the program?
5. What is required of customers or client?
6. How do employees select which products or services will be provided to the customer or client?
7. What is the general process that customers or clients go through with the product or program?
8. What do customers or clients consider to be strengths of the program?
9. What do staff consider to be strengths of the product or program?
10. What typical complaints are heard from employees and/or customers?
11. What do employees and/or customers recommend to improve the product or program?
12. On what basis do employees and/or the customer decide that the product or services are no longer needed?
Program evaluation with an outcomes focus is increasingly important for nonprofits and asked for by funders.An outcomes-based evaluation facilitates your asking if your organization is really doing the right program activities to bring about the outcomes you believe (or better yet, you’ve verified) to be needed by your clients (rather than just engaging in busy activities which seem reasonable to do at the time). Outcomes are benefits to clients from participation in the program. Outcomes are usually in terms of enhanced learning (knowledge, perceptions/attitudes or skills) or conditions, e.g., increased literacy, self-reliance, etc. Outcomes are often confused with program outputs or units of services, e.g., the number of clients who went through a program.
The United Way of America (http://www.unitedway.org/outcomes/) provides an excellent overview of outcomes-based evaluation, including introduction to outcomes measurement, a program outcome model, why to measure outcomes, use of program outcome findings by agencies, eight steps to success for measuring outcomes, examples of outcomes and outcome indicators for various programs and the resources needed for measuring outcomes. The following information is a top-level summary of information from this site.
To accomplish an outcomes-based evaluation, you should first pilot, or test, this evaluation approach on one or two programs at most (before doing all programs).
The general steps to accomplish an outcomes-based evaluation include to:
1. Identify the major outcomes that you want to examine or verify for the program under evaluation. You might reflect on your mission (the overall purpose of your organization) and ask yourself what impacts you will have on your clients as you work towards your mission. For example, if your overall mission is to provide shelter and resources to abused women, then ask yourself what benefits this will have on those women if you effectively provide them shelter and other services or resources. As a last resort, you might ask yourself, “What major activities are we doing now?” and then for each activity, ask “Why are we doing that?” The answer to this “Why?” question is usually an outcome. This “last resort” approach, though, may just end up justifying ineffective activities you are doing now, rather than examining what you should be doing in the first place.
2. Choose the outcomes that you want to examine, prioritize the outcomes and, if your time and resources are limited, pick the top two to four most important outcomes to examine for now.
3. For each outcome, specify what observable measures, or indicators, will suggest that you’re achieving that key outcome with your clients. This is often the most important and enlightening step in outcomes-based evaluation. However, it is often the most challenging and even confusing step, too, because you’re suddenly going from a rather intangible concept, e.g., increased self-reliance, to specific activities, e.g., supporting clients to get themselves to and from work, staying off drugs and alcohol, etc. It helps to have a “devil’s advocate” during this phase of identifying indicators, i.e., someone who can question why you can assume that an outcome was reached because certain associated indicators were present.
4. Specify a “target” goal of clients, i.e., what number or percent of clients you commit to achieving specific outcomes with, e.g., “increased self-reliance (an outcome) for 70% of adult, African American women living in the inner city of Minneapolis as evidenced by the following measures (indicators) …”
5. Identify what information is needed to show these indicators, e.g., you’ll need to know how many clients in the target group went through the program, how many of them reliably undertook their own transportation to work and stayed off drugs,
6. Decide how can that information be efficiently and realistically gathered (see Selecting Which Methods to Use below). Consider program documentation, observation of program personnel and clients in the program, questionnaires and interviews about clients perceived benefits from the program, case studies of program failures and successes, etc. You may not need all of the above.
Germanic warrior culture supplanted the Romans as the predominant power in Western Europe starting in the fifth century AD. They ousted simply all roman conventions and traditions, superseding them with their own convictions. The entire domain was destroyed by individuals, who above all else lauded war, masculinity, and poise. Social quirks of those individuals are generally reflected in the old epos of Anglo-Saxons, composed by an obscure artist around 700AD. Beowulf is an astonishing solidarity of thought processes, points, perspectives of different ages converged in one essential showstopper. We could discover the components of various epic sorts: epitaphs, other courageous stories (melody about Sigmund), religious epos (tune about the making of the world). The perspectives of inborn society are joined with medieval morals; chivalrous picture of a warrior is joined with the picture of insightful and reasonable ruler. The move of the sonnet makes put before the extraordinary relocation of Germanic clans something close to 500AD. The relative of popular old ruler Shield Sheafson lord Hrothgar of Danemark experiences the assault of a great and unpleasant evil spirit named Grendel. For a long time he has been killing respectable and courageous men in Heorot, an incredible mead-lobby of Hrothgar, threatening Danes consistently, allowing them to battle back. "Long was the time: Twelve winters' time enduring persevered through The companion of the Scyldings, every last one of hardships, Of distresses outrageous" (Beowulf, 146-149) Eventually, help originates from Geatish warrior Beowulf, who sails to the place where there is Danes with an organization of gave men. His assistance is readily acknowledged by Hrodgar and they joyfully celebrate till the night. In the night Beowulf battles Grendel unarmed and removes his arm. Grendel crawls back to his marsh and kicks the bucket there. His appalling mother needs to exact retribution however she is significantly weaker and executes just a single man, who is the most aware in Hrothgar's kingdom. Beowulf volunteers to murder Grendel's mom. "Emerge, kingdom's gatekeeper! Let us rapidly go to see the track of Grendel's kinsman."(Beowulf 1390-91).He battles her in profound waters and in her sanctuary. He executes her with an uncommon sword, made not for normal people, discovers Grendel and takes his take off. When he returns, he is commended by everybody, given a great deal of fortunes and acclaim. Thereafter he comes back to his territory and gives every one of his fortunes to his ruler. Beowulf turns into the co-ruler and after the demise of lord, he turns into the ruler for a long time. A horrendous mythical serpent assaults his territory, since one of his men ransacked the treasury watched by that winged serpent. Beowulf battles the mythical beast, slaughters him however gets mortally injured. The mythical serpent's treasury is singed together with Beowulf's body. The period of wars goes to the land, when Beowulf can't join the general population any longer with his quality and insight. Beowulf is a treasury of authentic data. It displays the significant social attributes of medieval warrior society; delineate their convictions, ways of life, relations with different countries, and so forth. Just supreme control of men in every one of the circles of life was a trademark highlight of early medieval occasions. Ladies characters are made reference to just a few times as spouses or girls of rulers. Indeed, even solid and ground-breaking ruler Modthrytho, little girl of Herod obeys to her dad's order to wed King Offa. She tormented and slaughtered individuals who she envisioned were irritating her. "Such isn't queenly custom For a lady to hone, however she be consummate, That a peace-weaver of life ought to deny, by virtue of wild annoyance, any dear man"(Beowulf, 1940-43). After marriage her character made strides. That is the reason all the material and profound estimations of the medieval society speak to men sees upon the truth. Each man was a warrior. A decent warrior ought to be solid, effective, regarded, rich and fortunate. The portrayal of lord Shield Shiefson is just and perfect picture of man's life. Being a newborn child he ascended under the sky and turned out to be genuine warrior and lord. He had not too bad life, fair demise and his treasury was vast."The lord caused fear since first he was discovered along these lines melancholy: picked up he comfort for that, became under the mists, in distinctions throve, until every single one of those residence around over the whale-street, him ought to comply, should tribute pay: that was a decent ruler" (Beowulf, 6-11). Lord dependably ought to be regarded and regarded. The possibility of extreme devotion is exceptionally solid in the hearts of medieval individuals. The longing to be applauded by chieftain, ruler or lord is extremely solid, in light of the fact that for the general public of warriors lord is the most grounded, savvies, most ground-breaking and respected man. He liberally offers thriving to prominent warriors and judge inflexibly shameful men. Beowulf gets back home and gives simply the entirety of his fortunes to his ruler. "To Hygelac was,in fight courageous, his nephew gave. Also, each to the next aware of thoughtfulness" (Beowulf 2169-71). The pioneer gives every single essential thing. Family have their very own property, land and cash. All that is given for good military administration. Warriors devour in enormous lobbies, where they adulate their ruler, theirselves, their accomplishments and acclaimed fights and plan future war battles. "in time it came to pass for Quickly with men, that it was all prepared, The best of lobbies: Heort as name gave he it"(Beowulf 76-78) "the warriors were living in delights Happily at that point" (Beowulf, 99-100). Beowulf is a picture of perfect legend, whose deeds are respected and applauded. He has all highlights that are esteemed in medieval warrior society – quality, bravery, shrewdness, dependability, pioneer and military abilities, poise, altruism and commitment. He regards his confidants and regard them as equivalents, he is reasonable and enthusiastic. "don't thou reject me, protector of warriors, Dear companion of the general population, now up to this point am I come,- That I may alone and my band of barons, This organization valiant, Heorot scrub. (Beowulf 429-32) This unmistakable quality is leaded by inward characteristics, the quality and excellence of the spirit prompts noticeable deeds. "At that point the main me by thine possess life Adjured, pitiful as a primary concern, that I in the ocean's surge Should do valiant deeds, should hazard my life, Should respect gain; he guaranteed compensate" (Beowulf, 2131-2134). In the event that a man isn't dynamic, effective or decided, he probably won't be regarded. "Long he was detested, As him the Geats' youngsters did not figure great, 2185Nor him at the mead-seat as deserving of much"(Beowulf, 2183-86) One can be considered as a fortunate and fruitful individual, however this fortunes and achievement if dependably come to by diligent work and inward goal. Religion likewise assumes an essential job in medieval society. In "Beowulf" a specific converge of religions is introduced. From one hand, there are sure agnostic convictions of German clans. From the other hand – Christianity, that is uncovered for instance in the portrayal of Grendel, who is named Cain's child. "Upon Cain's family that wrongdoing vindicated The Lord interminable, for that he slew Abel: Joyed he not in that quarrel, but rather him a far distance banishedFor that wrongdoing the Creator far from humankind: Thence abhorrent evil spirits all were delivered" (Beowulf, 107-111). Perpetually savage, uneducated and country culture of medieval Europe stood out significantly from abstract, politically determined urban culture of Athens. There was the wrong spot for philosophical contemplations or created political interests – Beowulf asserts that a forceful way to deal with retaliation is the genuine warrior's reaction .and principal estimation of warrior culture are intimate romance and devotion. "It is better for every that his companion he retaliate for than that he grieve much" (Beowulf, 1384-85). Another conspicuous contrast is state of mind to religion. Beowulf and his country adulate God, he could give favors and rouse individuals. They should be fearless and act with nobility for God to take them in better world. In any case, the main thing that will stay after warrior's demise is his greatness and this transcendence is battled for the entire life. "Every one of us will the end anticipate of common life: let him who may pick up respect ere passing. That is for a warrior, when he is dead, a while later best" (Beowulf, 1386-89). The craftsmen of that period were unskilled poets, who sang the ballads about antiquated legends and epic fights in tremendous and rich corridors of respectable men and in little and messy wooden lobbies of pioneers of little clans. The entire circumstance of the country was startling – consistent battles for grounds, cash and military power, poor social and medicinal condition, low level of culture , yet the thoughts talked about in those epic stories were rousing for each man. Quality to have the capacity to secure claim land and family, poise to act a genuine warrior, individual swords and ordnance that shields him from death and assume the job of the most critical warrior's property and trademark. Medieval occasions were bad looking or lovely. In the hard battle for new terrains and opportunity endured an extraordinary number of individuals. The world was crude however this intolerable soul of masculinity survived and assembled current European culture with its accentuation on close to home freedom and the manage of law.>GET ANSWER