For this discussion, we’re jumping into the mind of the great English Romantic Poet and illustrator William Blake. Read His Songs of Innocence and Experience and take a look at how the poems are aligned. “The Tyger” & “The Lamb.” The differing “Chimney Sweep”s and “Holy Thursday”s. What is Blake getting at with regards to human nature? Post and respond to two other posts.
A total of 16 male Jordanians with advanced level of English were chosen as a sample of the study. The sample participants were selected from Jordanian army officers who had excellent English level according to their latest marks on TOEFL and English comprehension level (ECL) test made for them as part of preparing themselves at the Jordanian Armed Forces Institute of Language to travel to Africa to work with the United Nations Peace Keeping Departments (UNPKD) as UN military observers. All of them received formal instruction (yet, with varied length of learning experience) in syntax and sentence level-grammar, phonetics and phonology, semantics, and morphology. Adult advanced L2 language users were believed to be more able to clearly express themselves than younger learners on how they process their linguistic knowledge, thus rendering more reliable data and findings. The researcher was preparing himself as well to travel to Africa, and that is how he met them at the institute on 31 January, 2016. He introduced the assignment of the list of sentences to them, and explained what was expected from them to provide. Data collection procedures and instrument A list of 8 sentences was used in a form of lexical inferring task to instigate any previously acquired deep lexical knowledge by 16 advanced learners of English who are native Arabic speakers. The list of sentences was sent to the participants’ mobile phones through a WhatsApp group to which the participants were invited. For analysis purposes, each participant was also asked to tell the length of years he has spent learning English, to attempt to explore any potential relationship between the length of period and the use of LKSs. Participants were asked to try to extract the meaning of the underlined target lexical items (see Appendix 1 for the list of sentences). Participants were asked to use a piece of paper at the end of tackling every sentence to write down what kinds of clues and previous linguistic knowledge that helped them understand the meaning of the target lexical items. Students could provide a synonym, antonym, translation, or even explanation for each of the underlined lexical item’s meaning. The eight sentences with one word or strings of words being underlined in each sentence were designed by the researcher. The target lexical items (the focus of the inferring task) were meant to meet as much as possible Haastrup’s (1991) criteria, which are as follows: (1) Lexical items should be unfamiliar to all participants. (2) Lexical items invite the use of various knowledge sources. (3) A range of lexical item-parts of speech are presented. Accordingly, the sentences were selected so that the readers would know most of the words except for the target lexical items. Target lexical items included nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and phrases. Contextualized lexical items covered the various sought LKSs. Sentences included clues to help activate inferring and cognition. This is made in line with Wang’s (2011:2) statement that ‘When a text does not supply clear and enough clues for unknown words, it is very hard for readers [‘], to figure out the word meaning’. See Table 3 for the clues that were intentionally made available in the study’s inferring test. Table 3: Clues in the study’s inferring test>GET ANSWER