Suppose an analyst takes a random sample of 5 recent truck shipments made by a company and records the distance in miles and delivery time in days that the shipment was made available for pick-up.
The observations are as follows:
Distance (miles) 825 215 1070 550 340
Delivery time (days) 2 1 4 2 1
Determine the covariance between the two variables. Use the sample covariance formula:
One of the major risks in the economy is the oil price. Many financial assets are severely affected by the oil price. Consider a natural gas company and an automobile company. The natural gas company will be hit by a low oil price because the demand for natural gas will decrease as oil becomes cheaper. But the automobile company will benefit from a low oil price as more people can afford the cost of driving a car. The probability of the oil price next year is given by the following table:
Oil price Probability
does not change 40%
Contingent on the change in the oil price next year, the annual returns to the companies are expected as follows:
If oil price Natural gas Automobile
drops -8% 14%
does not change 7% 4%
arises 12% -6%
You are planning to invest 40% of your investment in the natural gas company and the remaining in the automobile company. What is the variance of your portfolio?
After analyzing several months of sales data, the owner of an appliance store produced the following probability distribution of the number of refrigerators and stoves sold daily.
Refrigerators Stoves Probability
0 0 10%
0 1 40%
1 0 30%
1 1 20%
1. Find the covariance.
The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) has four sections: analytical writing, integrated reasoning, quantitative and verbal sections. Suppose that a researcher collected GMAT score data and calculated the covariance matrix across sections.
Analytical Writing Integrated Reasoning Quantitative Verbal
Analytical Writing 0.81
Integrated Reasoning 0.108 1.44
Quantitative 1.08 2.88 16
Verbal 0.54 1.8 4.8 9
Find the pair of two sections that have the largest correlation coefficient.
a. Quantitative and verbal
b. Analytical writing and quantitative
c. Analytical writing and integrated reasoning
d. Integrated reasoning and quantitative
e. Analytical writing and verbal
The following table gives the per-capital income in hundred dollars and the percentage of the economy represented by agriculture for some countries.
Per-capita Income ($100) 45 55 35 60 55
Percentage of the Economy in Agriculture (%) 9 8 4 8 6
Find the coefficient of correlation. (Use the sample variance and covariance formula.)
The motivation behind the examination was to inspect the impact of authority on representative execution considering the five elements of administration improvement that are instructing, preparing and advancement, strengthening, interest and assignment. Hence these frame the free factors that are influencing worker execution which is the reliant variable. The theories expressed in the investigation are relating initiative to representative execution thinking about these five distinct components. Since this entire examination rotates around the significance of authority advancement and its effect on representative execution, the connection between these factors of initiative with the worker execution have been contemplated and inquired about upon. Exploratory research is done and a comfort inspecting procedure is utilized. Polls were likewise circled and SPSS-14 is utilized for information investigation. Pearson Correlation and Regression examination is likewise performed. The investigation demonstrated a solid positive connection between administration advancement with worker execution. An administrator must have initiative characteristics so as to fit in with the execution norms set by the organization. All the six speculations set up are acknowledged and are decidedly identified with representative execution, with preparing and improvement the most grounded variable of authority affecting worker execution. Vigoda-Gadot, Eran. 2005-2006. Authority Style, Organizational Politics and Employees' Performance: An Empirical Examination of Two Competing Models. This examination expects to research the job of hierarchical execution as an intervening variable between administration style and the workers' execution. Along these lines, the autonomous variable is authority; the needy variable is representative execution while hierarchical execution is an intervening variable. Polls were circled and a review was taken. A Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire measure was utilized. Exploratory Factor Analysis and a connection investigation were additionally done. The investigation has six speculations. One theory expresses that transformational and value-based administration are emphatically related with in-job execution and OCB (Eran, 2006), another express that transformational initiative will impact formal execution and OCB than value-based authority (Eran, 2006). Another speculation is that impression of hierarchical governmental issues are adversely identified with representative's in-job execution (Eran, 2006). Additionally, there is a theory that view of authoritative governmental issues intercede the connection among value-based and transformational administration, on one hand, and in-job execution and OCB on the other (Eran, 2006). It was likewise tried whether the connection among initiative and execution was immediate or backhanded. A positive relationship was found between transformational administration and execution; anyway value-based authority and execution had a negative relationship. Indisputably, authoritative governmental issues has been viewed as a compelling arbiter among initiative and execution. As per the examination, transformational initiative has a more straightforward beneficial outcome on representatives' execution. Hayward. A. Brett. (2005). Connection between Employee Performance, Leadership and Emotional Intelligence in a South African Parastatal Organization. This examination was directed to inspect the connection between authority, enthusiastic knowledge and the execution of workers. In this manner, the two free factors are initiative and passionate insight while the reliant variable is worker execution. An example of 160 pioneers and 800 raters was taken and a factual examination was finished utilizing the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire measure and the Emotional Competency Profiler. A direct relapse was run and a connection examination was completed. Four distinct speculations were framed however two of them are vital for my investigation. To start with, there is no huge positive straight connection between worker execution and a sincerely wise value-based pioneer (Brett, 2005) and that there is a critical positive direct connection between representative execution and a candidly savvy value-based pioneer (Brett, 2005). The second theory expresses that there is no noteworthy positive direct connection between representative execution and a candidly smart transformational pioneer (Brett, 2005) and that there is a critical positive straight connection between worker execution and a sincerely shrewd transformational pioneer (Brett, 2005). The outcomes demonstrate that there is a huge straight connection between worker execution and a candidly astute, value-based pioneer. Nonetheless, a noteworthy direct connection between worker execution and a sincerely smart transformational pioneer does not exist and furthermore that there is inadequate proof to demonstrate that. This entire investigation and its discoveries are, nonetheless, opposing to different examinations that have been led that demonstrate a positive connection between representative execution and a transformational pioneer. A. Oluseyi, Shadare and Hammed, T. Ayo 2009. Impact of Work Motivation, Leadership Effectiveness and Time Management on Employees' Performance in Some Selected Industries in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The reason for this examination was to assess the impact of the three free factors; work inspiration, initiative adequacy and time the board, on worker execution that is the needy variable. A sum of 300 staff individuals were chosen through stratified irregular examining and the information was gathered through Work Motivation Behavior Profile, Leadership Behavior Rating Scale and Time Management Behavior Inventory. A different relapse was run and connection network was utilized. The investigation answers the three fundamental research questions. To begin with, the relationship is recognized between every free factor and representative execution. Additionally, the composite and relative impact of every one of these factors on worker execution is examined. The outcomes demonstrate that every one of the three free factors have a positive and noteworthy effect on worker execution, with initiative adequacy demonstrating the most grounded connection, trailed by work inspiration. In this way initiative assumes a crucial job in upgrading the execution of the workers. Sribenjachot, Suteera. 2007. Effect of Leadership Style on Follower Performance in Direct Selling Industry in Thailand. This examination assesses the effect that value-based and transformational initiative has on execution. Both administration styles effectsly affect execution. Execution is the reliant variable which is affected by the authority style which is the free factor. Another variable is characterized as 'pioneer result' that is affected by the authority styles and effects execution. A study inquire about structure of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was utilized. The date was gathered through MLQ-5X. Way examination was performed and a factual program known as 'Investigation of Moment Structure' was utilized. A few speculations were shaped; transformational initiative has no impact on devotee execution (Suteera, 2007), value-based authority has no impact on adherent execution (Suteera, 2007), transformational administration has no impact on pioneer result (Suteera, 2007), value-based authority has no impact on pioneer result (Suteera, 2007) and pioneer results have no impact on supporter execution (Suteera, 2007). The outcomes demonstrate a negative connection between value-based initiative and execution, and no connection between transformational authority and execution. Both initiative styles positively affect pioneer result, and that result influences the execution of the adherents or the workers. Amran G. Tiena and Kusbramayanti, Putri. 2007. Administration and Organizational Culture Relationship Analysis on Job Performance and Satisfaction utilizing SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) at Pt. Carita Boat Indonesia. This examination plans to inspect the immediate impact of authority and authoritative culture on employment execution and its circuitous effect on occupation fulfillment. Additionally, it considers the effect of occupation execution on employment fulfillment. In this manner, every one of these components of the examination shape the fundamental factors. An overview was taken and information was gathered through polls. An example of 100 laborers was taken. Basic Equation Modeling was utilized for the examination of the information. The examination has four speculations. The nature of representative employment execution is decidedly impacted by pioneer part relations (Tiena and Putri, 2007). The nature of workers' activity execution is emphatically impacted by hierarchical culture (Tiena and Putri, 2007). The nature of working fulfillment is emphatically impacted by execution (Tiena and Putri, 2007). The outcomes demonstrate that administration affects the nature of execution and that thus positively affects work fulfillment. Authority likewise affects work fulfillment and it rouses a worker. The pioneer part relationship impacts both administration style and representative employment execution. Goh Yuan Sheng Victor, Geoffrey N. Soutar. 2005. The Role of Ethical Behaviors in the Relations between Leadership Styles and Job Performance. This examination relates the three components of initiative styles, moral practices and employment execution. The two administration styles, transformational and value-based, are talked about and their association with execution is contemplated. Moral practices that incorporate deontology and teleological morals are additionally analyzed. This article audits how the pioneers utilize these moral qualities and frame decisions. Thusly these moral qualities assume an interceding job in framing the connection between administration (free factor) and worker execution (subordinate variable>GET ANSWER