In chapters 12 and 13 of Feminism is for Everybody, bell hooks challenges the system of patriarchal privilege. In chapter 12, she suggests that most men do not want to be oppressive and yet because of the way they have been socialized they see no other choice for themselves if they want to be understood as “real men”. In chapter 13 she says “Future feminist studies will document all the ways anti-sexist male parenting enhances the lives of children” (78).
Rebecca Solnit “delineates three big blurry categories” in relation to how men perceive and act toward feminism “There are the allies…the raging misogynists (87) and “then there are a slew of men who may mean well, but enter the conversation about feminism with factually challenged assertions that someone – usually in my experience a woman — will spend a lot of time trying to rectify” (88).
Both authors, and the speakers in the videos we watch this week, are concerned with the impacts of misogyny on future generations and on the planet where we live. So, in truth, all of us need to be concerned with how all men and individual men relate to the liberation of all women and individual women.
Respond to the prompt by quoting BOTH authors and at least one of the speakers from one of the videos.
Consider how can men can participate in parenting in ways that help overcome sexism in our society and on our planet. Be sure to quote both authors and one of the speakers from one of the videos, but also give at least one specific example of what “feminist masculinity” might look like in relationship to parenting.
As indicated, the focus of this paper will be narrowed down to the challenge of youth unemployment. To effectively take on this it is useful to begin with definition of the concepts of ‘youth’ and ‘unemployment.’ The paper adopts the definition espoused by the World Bank on youth unemployment which is: ‘the share of the labour force aged between 15 and 24 without work but available for and seeking employment’ (World Bank Development Indicators 2007). However, countries have been found to use their own definition of youth depending on cultural, institutional and political considerations. South Africa’s National Youth Policy (2009-2014) defines the youth age group as being between the ages of 15 and 35 years old. The motivation for the expansion of the age group range is based on historical political imbalances citing that the fruits of democracy have not as yet reversed these imbalances (National Youth Commission act no 16 of 1996). Interestingly, in policy positions the South African government differentiates between 15-24 year olds and 25 -35 year old. This differentiation is useful to the extent that it does allow for some comparison along international benchmarks. Definitions aside; South Africa has a youth unemployment crisis. When compared with its emerging market peers this crisis is glaring. If the employment ratio, which is the proportion of the working age population, is taken into consideration, South Africa falls short of its emerging market peers especially within the BRICS bloc (Blumenfeld 2012). In China, employment attracts 71% of the working age population, 65% in Brazil which slightly above Russia’s 57’% and India’s 55%. These numbers are a stark contrast to South Africa’s 40.8%. Outside of the BRICS comparison, according to Blumenfeld (2012) the average employment ratio across 19 emerging markets is 56%. This picture worsens when the youth segment (15-24 year-olds) is honed in on. South Africa’s youth employment ratio is 12.5%. This means that one in eight young people in South Africa are employed, this compared with 36% across emerging markets (Blumenfeld, 2012). There are a number of considerations that must be made when taking on the youth unemployment crisis in South Africa. In addition to the employment ratio referred to above, the participation rate is important and is often referred to as the expanded or inclusive definition of unemployment (Ozler, 2007). This is the proportion of the population that includes job seekers who are currently unemployed but consider themselves as part of the labour force. The numbers show that South Africa’s youth participation rate also lags behind the emerging market average of 42% coming in at 24.4% (Blumenfeld 2012; Ozler 2007; Bhorat 2001). Simply put, three out of every four young people do not regard themselves as part of the labour force.>GET ANSWER