- What type of qualitative approach did the researcher use?
In the journal article written by Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Brave, & Apostolo the qualitative approach was conducted by implementing a descriptive phenomenological study “in order to study the complex phenomenon of the human experience, giving emphasis to how the life world is described by the participants voices” (2016, pp. 2).
- What time of sampling method did the researcher use? Is it appropriate for the study?
The journal written by Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Brave, & Apostolo implemented the study from seventeen patient individualized interviews, ten Spanish palliative care units and seven Portuguese palliative care units, between March and May of 2015 (2016, pp. 2).
The study was appropriate but limited in data collection due to the small number of participants.
- Was the data collection focused on human experiences?
One investigator conducted all of the interviews to maintain consistency in how the interview was held. The data collected focused on human experience through the “intention of the significant experience of comfort and discomfort to emerge freely” (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Brave, & Apostolo, 2016, pp. 2) This was conducted through the initial question of “How did you live the experience of being hospitalized in this unit?” with follow-up questions to clarify the data collected (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Brave, & Apostolo, 2016, pp. 2).
- Were issues of protection of human subjects addressed?
The article written by Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Brave, & Apostolo addressed the protection of the participants through the actions of gaining approval of three ethics committees, the interviewer worked in the Spanish Center but not the PCU, the interviewer did not meet the participants prior to the interview, participants understood the study was voluntary and could withdraw at any given time, and the interviewer obtained written consent and guaranteed confidentiality prior to conducting the interview (2016, pp. 3).
- Did the researcher describe data saturation?
For this study, data saturation was obtained after the collection of the seventeen interviews (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Brave, & Apostolo, 2016, pp. 2).
- What procedure for collecting data did the researcher use?
According to the journal written by Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Brave, & Apostolo, data was obtained through non-structured interviews through only one interviewer to maintain consistency, asking the original question, individualizing interviews that averaged thirty two minutes, letting the participant chose the location of the interview, recording and transcribing the interviews verbatim which were then revised by the interviewer to verify the accuracy (2016, pp. 2).
- What strategies did the researcher use to analyze the data?
In the journal article written by Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Brave, & Apostolo, data analysis was conducted with the “Giorgi method” which involves four steps and managed through the QSR NVivo version 10 software:
1) Reading the transcripts several times to get a sense of the whole experience
2) Reading the transcripts with the purpose of identifying the meaning units
3) Identified meaning units were transformed in the appropriate language to the phenomenon study and grouped into common themes and subthemes that represent the essence of comfort experiences
4) Synthesize all of the transformed meaning units into a consistent and descriptive statement regarding the subject’s experience and comfort
(2016, pp. 3)
- Did the researcher address credibility (can you appreciate the truth of the patient’s experience), auditability (can you follow the researcher’s thinking, does the research document the research process) and fittingness (are the results meaningful, is analysis strategy compatible with the purpose of the study) of the data?
The article written by Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Brave, & Apostolo, credibility was not attained because “findings were not returned to participants for confirmation because of participant’s declining health” (2016, pp.2).
- What is your cosmic questions? (This is a question you ask your peers to respond to base on the chapter discussed in class this week i.e. Qualitative studies).
Due to the small number of participants, do you think that data saturation could be better accomplished by conducting the same interview questions with the established participants loved ones?
On December 20, 1977, under the pressure of steady police reconnaissance and examination, Gacy admits to more than 30 killings and advises his legal advisor and companion where the bodies were covered, both in the slither space and the stream. 26 casualties were found in the slither space and 4 in the stream. Gacy is captured, indicted for 33 killings, and condemned to death by deadly infusion. He endeavored a craziness supplication however was denied, and was executed on May 10, 1994. There were a few legal markers that examiners used to attach Gacy to the killings. A portion of these include fiber investigation, dental and radiology records, utilizing the deterioration cycle of the human body, and facial remaking in distinguishing the people in question. Agents discovered strands that looked like human hair in both Gacy's vehicle and close to the creep space where the bodies were covered. Notwithstanding these hair tests, agents likewise discovered filaments that contained hints of Gacy's blood and semen in a similar region. Blood having a place with the casualties was found on a portion of the strands, which would later straightforwardly attach Gacy to the violations. The filaments in Gacy's vehicle were broke down by measurable researchers and coordinated Piest's hair tests. Moreover, the pursuit canines that established that Piest had been in Gacy's vehicle demonstrated this by a "passing response", which told specialists that Piest's dead body had been within Gacy's vehicle. Out of Gacy's 33 known casualties, just 25 were ever decisively recognized. A significant number of Gacy's casualties had comparative actual portrayals and were in this way difficult to recognize by absolutely asking people in general. To distinguish the people in question, examiners went to Betty Pat Gatliff, a pioneer in measurable science and facial remaking. Facial remaking is the way toward reproducing the facial highlights of a person by utilizing their remaining parts. Certain facial highlights, for example, facial structures, nasal structure, and by and large face shape can be helpful in distinguishing a casualty even long in the afterlife. By utilizing these highlights, and with the assistance of program, measurable specialists can make a picture of an individual's face, which is instrumental in distinguishing casualties after their bodies have rotted. Facial reproduction should be possible in a few measurements. Two-dimensional facial reproductions is utilized with skull radiographs and depend on pre-demise photos and data. Be that as it may, this isn't really ideal in light of the fact that cranial highlights are not generally obvious or at the correct scale (Downing). So as to get a reasonable and more precise portrayal of the casualty's face, a craftsman and a criminological anthropologist are normally essential (Downing). Three-dimensional facial remaking is finished by models or high goal, three-dimensional pictures. PC programs can make facial reproductions by controlling checked photos of the remaining parts and use approximations to reproduce facial highlights. These will in general create results that don't look counterfeit (Reichs and Craig 491). Here and there, examiners will utilize a strategy called superimposition as a method for facial recreation. Lamentably, it's anything but a generally utilized technique, as it expects examiners to have some information about the personality of the remaining parts they are managing. By superimposing a photo of a person over the skeletal remaining parts, agents can check whether the facial highlights line up with the anatomical highlights, permitting them to distinguish a casualty. On account of John Wayne Gacy's casualties, specialists had the option to utilize facial reproduction to recognize nine of the bodies found in the creep space. The accompanying realistic shows the facial reproductions of these nine casualties: Since facial reproduction was insufficient to recognize the entirety of the people in question, examiners acquired DNA profiles from every one of the unidentified casualties and effectively searched out DNA tests from guys over the United States who had been accounted for missing somewhere in the range of 1970 and 1979 (Cook County Sheriff's Office 3). The leftover casualties were recognized utilizing dental and radiology records. Since dental polish is harder than bone, teeth outlive tissue and once in a while bone when the body deteriorates. Teeth are entirely dependable in recognizing casualties, as they will in general uncover propensities about the individual, for example, nail gnawing, crushing and weight propensities, lip gnawing, and holding (Ryan 254). Besides, the top of the mouth, which frames a curve, is remarkable to every person fit as a fiddle, size, and shape. Teeth additionally have singular qualities that are special to every individual in that the relationship of teeth to each other changes, alongside size and state of the jaws and sense of taste (Ryan 255). So as to distinguish an individual utilizing dental records, scientific dental specialists must secure the dental records of the person in question or expired. In cases including numerous passings, criminological dental specialists get a rundown of potential people and afterward contrast records with the teeth (Freeman standard. 2). Much of the time, X-beams are viewed as more solid and give the best examinations, however these are not generally accessible to scientific specialists. When the dental records have been procured, scientific specialists at that point take a gander at the individual tooth size, shading, and form, curve sizes and types, and the connection between the jaws, which is utilized to help group facial sorts (Ryan 256). Despite the fact that John Wayne Gacy's latest casualty was Robert Piest in 1978, specialists in Cook County are as yet looking for ID for the leftover bodies. The most as of late distinguished casualty, William Bundy, was decisively recognized in 2011. The Cook County Sheriff's area of expertise declared the exact year that they were restoring their endeavors to distinguish the excess seven of Gacy's casualties. Notwithstanding, nobody has since approached to definitively distinguish them, and their names stay obscure. John Wayne Gacy was one of America's most productive chronic executioners. With a casualty include of 33 youngsters in a three-year range of time, Gacy was condemned to death by killing for his wrongdoings. Scientific researchers and agents had the option to attach Gacy to the killings by utilizing dental and radiology records, facial reproduction, and DNA proof. Without the utilization of measurable innovation and the exertion set forth by the specialists, Gacy would have kept submitting murders and huge numbers of the casualties would have gone unnoticed. While the case has been cold for a long time, examiners are as yet attempting to distinguish the leftover casualties so as to give bit of brain to the groups of the perished. John Wayne Gacy has stood out forever for his wrongdoings, yet his casualties will never be overlooked. About Essay Sauce>GET ANSWER