Tae-Kyo is a comprehensive view that implies a framework for conceptualizing prenatal care that encompasses multidimensional aspects of prenatal care culture which has a powerful influence on Korean perinatal beliefs and practices and as a result, pregnancy is highly ritualized in Korean culture. TheTae-Kyo philosophy shows the importance of children’s development from the very beginning of life and indicates the moral and social responsibilities of pregnant women, family members, and communities in delivering healthy babies. Once a Korean woman has conceived, she is supposed to follow Tae-Kyo which includes various prenatal care rituals and behavioral taboos. Tae-kyo is a set of traditional prenatal self-care which originally starts from being prepared as a parent even before the conception. It has been observed by many childbearing women in Korean culture. It is important for a Korean woman to appreciate beautiful things in life and avoid certain taboos. Examples of this includes avoiding handling unclean things or killing any live creature, to avoid childbirth complications or other misfortunes in the family which may occur. In following the tradition many also may bind their bellies with binders from 5 months gestation and do indulge in great physical activity to avoid a large baby. Under this practice woman refrain from eating particular foods like ducks, scaled fish, crabs, squids to avoid the baby taking on features likening to those foods, (Lee 2015).
During pregnancy Korean women tend to stay away from certain foods and also make an effort to incorporate more of certain other foods to their diet. The more dominant foods consumed during pregnancy are rice, kimenchee, noodles or fresh fruits. Those foods to be avoided are crabs, chicken, coffee, and spicy foods. Fruits with blemishes were avoided because it is believed to cause the infant to have skin complications and/or a mean face. Postpartum food choices include seaweed soup and rice to enhance lactation and help the mother heal by cleaning the blood because of they contents are high in iron. It is also recommended that in their postpartum period new mothers avoid cold foods and beverages because they would negatively affect their physiological healing process, because they are believed to lose heat during labor and thus need to replace that heat with hot oral intakes to avoid arthritis and other chronic diseases, (Purnell 2013).
The cultural attitudes toward drinking among Koreans is reflective of their social structure, lifestyle, and traditions. Though Korean when tend to be light drinkers, their male counterparts often times drink heavily, a tradition passed down from fathers to son. Culturally alcohol consumption is incorporated in even business as they believe that reactions, decisions and choices are more organic as inhibitions are laid to rest after drinking. Because of heavy expectation in the culture it may appear to also be a coping mechanism causing high alcohol prevalence, (Purnell 2013).
Culturally congruent strategies a healthcare provider might use to address Jay’s drinking include helping Jay with coping strategies other than alcohol. Culturally Korean’s often feels great pressure to success and be able to meet the needs of their families and Jay’s job stress combined with increasing family is causing him to use alcohol. Also it important to educate Jay about what alcoholism is because he may not find his drinking to be problem as many Koreans, especially Korean birth tend not to deem strong alcohol use as alcoholism if it doesn’t cause physiological and psychological addition and degeneration, (Purnell 2013).
Lee, Kyoung-Eun (2015). Korean Immigrant Women’s Taekyo Practices in the United States as a Traditional Prenatal Self-care Division of Nursing Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea. Korean J Women Health Nurs. Accesses July 29 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b0be/bca02773e83f401207a14fdfb75f5cd9b235.pdf
Purnell, L. (2013). Transcultural health care: A culturally competent approach. (4th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.
Question 2 (RMI)
Korean Cultural Practices and Health Care
Culture shapes and influences health belief systems and has significant impacts on the traditional health care behaviors of patients, especially how women distinguish and decipher health care practices when it comes to the expectations of their cultural communities and childbirth experience. For instance, after conception in the Korean culture, the mother is expected to adhere to tae-kyo, which is a set of behavioral taboos and conventional prenatal self-care practices or rituals (Lee, 2015). Observing tae-kyo involves figuring and appreciating beautiful things in life and refraining from committing specific taboos, including only eating clean food and touching clean items to avoid bringing misfortunes to the family or enduring difficult childbirth.
Certain aspects of tae-kyo are similar to the allopathic recommendations for prenatal care while others are not. For instance, both Western prenatal practices and tae-kyo emphasize the importance of the relationship between the mother and the baby. As such, both cultures engage in activities, such as playing music for the baby, reading and talking to the baby, and mediation, among others to fortify maternal-fetal attachment (Lee, 2015). Even though the objective of tae-kyo is to promote the health and well being of the fetus and the mother; it has some risk practices such as having pregnant women wear tight abdominal binders or work physically hard toward the end of the pregnancy to increase the chances of having a small baby (Purnell, 2013). Also, tae-kyo forbids the intake of pain medication during childbirth since pregnant mothers are not supposed to evince pain during the process of delivery. The Korean culture expects them to be strong, silent, and direct their energy toward chi during delivery. While some discordances exist, the fact that tae-kyo strengthens maternal-fetal connection necessitates its inclusion in the recommendations for prenatal care.
Based on principles of tae-kyo and the Korean culture, food choices vary during pregnancy and postpartum, in terms of the intended recipient and function in the body. During pregnancy, the pregnant mother only consumes unblemished foods and avoids crooked or broken pieces of cookies, fruit, and vegetables. They believe that such food choices will have a positive impact on the physical appearance of the baby. On the other hand, after delivery, the focus shifts from nourishment of the baby to the mother in terms of food choices. For instance, the mother consumes seaweed soup for four weeks after delivery to clean her blood her from the toxins emanating from childbirth and contract her uterus (Purnell, 2013). They also do not eat crunchy or hard foods or drink cold drinks since their gums and bones are tender from childbirth.
According to the study undertaken by Cho (2016), drinking is a critical part of the corporate culture in South Korea, so much so that Confucian norms are infused in the practice. Their drinking etiquette involves a person never having an empty cup, thus fostering binge drinking as the norm. Moreover, the refusal of a drink is contemplated as a rejection of one’s generosity. In this regard, South Koreans perceive the drinking of alcohol as the easiest way of formulating relationships and alleviating stress. Based on these practices and norms on drinking, it is no surprise that Jay began taking alcohol as a way of coping with his stress.
An excellent example of a culturally congruent strategy that a health care professional can utilize to address Jay’s drinking is patient education on the serious impact of heavy drinking. There is a preference to shun the problem of excessive alcohol consumption in the Korean culture to the point where it is considered as common or normal (Ryu, Crespi, and Maxwell, 2013). Clarifying and changing this practice is crucial to enabling Jay to see the adverse impacts of his alcohol intake. Moreover, the medical practitioner can offer alternative ways of stress alleviation that are acceptable in the Korean culture as a viable substitute for drinking.
Cho, T. (2016). A sobering look at South Korea’s drinking culture. Retrieved 29 July 2020, from https://www.themonsoonproject.org/a-sobering-look-at-south-koreas-drinking-culture/
Lee, K. (2015). Korean immigrant women’s taekyo practices in the United States as a traditional prenatal self-care. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing, 21(3), 241. doi: 10.4069/kjwhn.2015.21.3.241
Purnell, L. (2013). Transcultural health care: A culturally competent approach (4th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
Ryu, S., Crespi, C., & Maxwell, A. (2013). Drinking patterns among Korean adults: Results of the 2009 Korean community health survey. Journal of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, 46(4), 183-191. doi: 10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.183
with his family and graduates from Northwestern Business College in 1963, and acknowledges an administration student position with Nunn-Bush Shoe Company. In 1964, Gacy is moved to Springfield and meets his future spouse, Marlynn Myers. In Springfield, Gacy has his subsequent gay experience when a colleague unsteadily performed oral sex on him (London 11:7). Gacy moves to Waterloo, Iowa, and starts a family with Myers. Nonetheless, after consistently undermining his better half with whores, Gacy submits his previously known rape in 1967 upon Donald Vorhees. In the coming months, Gacy explicitly manhandles a few different young people and is captured and accused of oral homosexuality (Sullivan and Maiken 60). On December 3, 1968, Gacy is indicted and condemned to ten years at the Anamosa State Penitentiary. Gacy turns into a model prisoner at Anamosa and is conceded parole in June of 1970, an only a brief time after his condemning. He had to migrate to Chicago and live with his mom and watch a 10:00PM time limitation. Not exactly a year later, Gacy is accused again of explicitly attacking a high school kid however the adolescent didn't show up in court, so the charges were dropped. Gacy was known by numerous individuals in his locale to be a devoted volunteer and being dynamic in network legislative issues. His function as "Pogo the Clown" the jokester started in 1975 when Gacy joined a nearby "Happy Joker" comedian club that consistently performed at raising money functions. On January 3, 1972, Gacy submits his first homicide of Timothy McCoy, a 16-year old kid going from Michigan to Omaha. Guaranteeing that McCoy went into his room employing a kitchen blade, Gacy gets into an actual quarrel with McCoy prior to cutting him consistently in the chest. In the wake of understanding that McCoy had absentmindedly strolled into the stay with the blade while attempting to get ready breakfast, Gacy covers the body in his creep space. Gacy conceded in the meetings following his capture that slaughtering McCoy gave him a "mind-desensitizing climax", expressing that this homicide was the point at which he "understood passing was a definitive rush" (Cahill and Ewing 349). Just about 2 years after the fact, Gacy submits his second homicide of a unidentified young person. Gacy choked the kid prior to stuffing the body in his storeroom prior to covering him (Cahill 349). In 1975, Gacy's business was developing rapidly and his craving for youngsters developed with it. Gacy frequently attracted youngsters under his work to his home, persuading them to place themselves in binds, and assaulting and tormenting them prior to choking them (Cahill 169-170). The greater part of Gacy's homicides occurred somewhere in the range of 1976 and 1978, the first of this time occurring in April 1976. A significant number of the young people that were killed during this time were covered in a creep space under Gacy's home. For the rest of the homicides, Gacy confessed to throwing five bodies off the I-55 scaffold into the Des Plaines River; nonetheless, just four of the bodies were ever recouped (Linedecker 152). In December 1978, Gacy meets Robert Jerome Piest, a 15-year old kid working at a drug store and extends to him an employment opportunity at Gacy's firm. Piest illuminates his mom regarding this and neglects to restore that night. The Piest family records a missing individual's report and the drug specialist educates police that Gacy would doubtlessly be the man that Jerome addressed about a work. When addressed by the police, Gacy denied any association in Piest's vanishing. Nonetheless, the police were not persuaded, and Gacy's set of experiences of sexual maltreatment and battery provoked the police to look through his home. Among the things found at Gacy's home were a 1975 secondary school class ring with the initials J.A.S., various driver's licenses, cuffs, apparel that was excessively little for Gacy, and a receipt for the drug store that Piest had worked at. Throughout the span of the following scarcely any days, examiners got different calls and tips about Gacy's rapes and the secretive vanishings of Gacy's workers. The class ring was in the end followed back to John A. Szyc, one of Gacy's casualties in 1977. Futhermore, after analyzing Gacy's vehicle, examiners found a little bunch of strands looking like human hair, which were shipped off the labs for additional examination. That very night, search canines were utilized to distinguish any hint of Piest in Gacy's vehicle, and one of the canines demonstrated that Piest had, actually, been available in the vehicle. On December 20, 1977, under the pressure of consistent police observation and examination, Gacy admits to more than 30 homicides and educates his attorney and companion where the bodies were covered, both in the slither space and the waterway. 26 casualties were found in the creep space and 4 in the stream. Gacy is captured, indicted for 33 homicides, and condemned to death by deadly infusion. He endeavored a craziness supplication however was denied, and was executed on May 10, 1994. There were a few measurable pointers that agents used to attach Gacy to the killings. A portion of these include fiber examination, dental and radiology records, utilizing the disintegration cycle of the human body, and facial remaking in recognizing the people in question. Agents discovered filaments that looked like human hair in both Gacy's vehicle and close to the creep space where the bodies were covered. Notwithstanding these hair tests, examiners additionally discovered filaments that contained hints of Gacy's blood and semen in a similar region. Blood having a place with the casualties was found on a portion of the strands, which would later straightforwardly attach Gacy to the wrongdoings. The strands in Gacy's vehicle were investigated by scientific researchers and coordinated Piest's hair tests. Moreover, the hunt canines that confirmed that Piest had been in Gacy's vehicle demonstrated this by a "passing response", which told specialists that Piest's dead body had been within Gacy's vehicle. Out of Gacy's 33 known casualties, just 25 were ever indisputably distinguished. Huge numbers of Gacy's casualties had comparative actual depictions and were along these lines hard to recognize by absolutely asking general society. To distinguish the people in question, agents went to Betty Pat Gatliff, a pioneer in scientific science and facial recreation. Facial remaking is the way toward reproducing the facial highlights of a person by utilizing their remaining parts. Certain facial highlights, for example, facial structures, nasal structure, and in general face shape can be helpful in recognizing a casualty even long in the afterlife. By utilizing these highlights, and with the assistance of program, criminological examiners can make a picture of an individual's face, which is instrumental in recognizing casualties after their bodies have rotted. Facial recreation should be possible in a few measurements. Two-dimensional facial reproductions is utilized with skull radiographs and depend on pre-demise photos and data. Notwithstanding, this isn't really ideal in light of the fact that cranial highlights are not generally obvious or at the correct scale (Downing). So as to get a sensible and more precise portrayal of the casualty's face, a craftsman and a measurable anthropologist are normally vital (Downing). Three-dimensional facial reproduction is finished by models or high goal, three-dimensional pictures. PC programs can make facial reproductions by controlling filtered photos of the remaining parts and use approximations to reproduce facial highlights. These will in general deliver results that don't look counterfeit (Reichs and Craig 491). Here and there, examiners will utilize a strategy called superimposition as a method for facial recreation. Tragically, it's anything but a usually utilized strategy, as it expects agents to have some information about the personality of the remaining parts they are managing. By superimposing a photo of a person over the skeletal remaining parts, agents can check whether the facial highlights line up with the anatomical highlights, permitting them to recognize a casualty. On account of John Wayne Gacy's casualties, specialists had the option to utilize facial remaking to recognize nine of the bodies found in the creep space. The accompanying realistic shows the facial recreations of these nine casualties: Since facial remaking was insufficient to recognize the entirety of the people in question, agents got DNA profiles from every one of the unidentified casualties and effectively searched out DNA tests from guys over the United States who had been accounted for missing somewhere in the range of 1970 and 1979 (Cook County Sheriff's Office 3). The leftover casualties were recognized utilizing dental and radiology records. Since dental lacquer is more earnestly than bone, teeth outlive tissue and now and then bone when the body decays. Teeth are truly dependable in recognizing casualties, as they will in general uncover propensities about the individual, for example, nail gnawing, pounding and weight propensities, lip gnawing, and grasping (Ryan 254). Besides, the top of the mouth, which frames a curve, is interesting to every person fit as a fiddle, size, and shape. Teeth additionally have singular qualities that are exceptional to every individual in that the relationship of teeth to each other changes, alongside size and state of the jaws and sense of taste (Ryan 255). So as to distinguish an individual utilizing dental records, measurable dental specialists must secure the dental records of the person in question or perished. In cases including various passings, legal dental specialists get a rundown of potential people and afterward contrast records with the teeth (Freeman standard. 2). By and large, X-beams are viewed as more solid and give the best correlations, yet these are not generally accessible to criminological specialists. When the dental records have been gained, criminological specialists at that point take a gander at the individual tooth size, shading, and form, curve sizes and types, and the connection between the jaws, which is utilized to help characterize facial sorts (Ryan 256). In spite of the fact that John Wayne Gacy's latest casualty was Robert Piest in 1978, specialists in Cook County are as yet looking for distinguishing proof for the leftover bodies. The most as of late distinguished casualty, William Bundy, was decisively recognized>GET ANSWER