Name the Five “Civilized” Tribes and the Iroquois Confederacy. For the Iroquois Confederacy please include the date of the last group to join.
2. Why was the Potlatch made illegal to practice? Please include the dates of when this ruling was overturned in the U.S. and Canada.
3. Identify the major characters/images/totemic symbols visible in Pacific Northwest Crest Pole art.
4. Describe how and why Wampum was used by tribes in the Northeast.
5. List the techniques, and colors, involved in the Formline artistic style. Be sure to include all the information discussed/noted within readings and lecture notes.
6. List three (3) ceremonial practices noted and discussed within the East. (Hint: There are a number to select from stated within the various readings – Berlo, Lecture Notes, Course Reader articles.)
7. Who named the Formline technique in the Pacific Northwest?
8. What is the meaning of “Trade-in-Metaphors”?
9. List the seven (7) types of Crest Poles in the Pacific Northwest.
10. Who were the non-Native groups that colonized the East and what techniques of separation were installed in this region?

Section 3 – Essay Portion: References Required for all questions. *Essays are to be at least one (1) full page of text single-spaced or two (2) full pages of text double-spaced. Images used to support your essay are not included in the required page length for the exam.

Please select from one (1) of the following:

1. Discuss the art of George Morrison. Why is his work important? What may be some points of meaning within his art to prescribe contemporary Native People? There is a Case Study – with useful links – to his work within the Lecture Notes. Please be sure to include all references. Please Do Not conduct a general web search on his work, artistic history, and the like. This will be viewed as unacceptable as a means to complete this essay.

2. Discuss the performance art works of James Luna. Why is his work important? What does he mean when he states that there is a difference between “being a spectacle and making a spectacle?” What may be some points of meaning within his art to prescribe contemporary Native People? It may be useful to review the Lecture Notes – and embedded links – regarding this work for further assistance. Please be sure to include all references.

3. Review the video “Native Noise” (!music/rebel-music/feature/native-noise (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). Discuss not only the important points, but also the artistic representations and use by these different musical artists. It will be useful to review the trailer and the other supporting content on the website (see Lecture Notes and included link to this site). Please be sure to include all references.


Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.