- In lecture, we used this definition of Communication: “A systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings” (Wood, 2017). Provide and discuss an example for each of the four underlined aspects of this definition (systemic; process; symbols; create and interpret meanings). Your discussion should explain how the example highlights the definition aspect.
Note. The citation for the definition is: Wood, J. (2017). Communication mosaics: An introduction to the field of communication (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
- Select a social media post (e.g., Twitter, Instagram, etc.) and describe it in terms of the transmission model of communication. Next, describe the same tweet in terms of the transactional model of communication. Finally, discuss the differences between the two models: in your examples, what does the transactional model include that the transmission model doesn’t?
- Find and discuss an example of post-positive OR interpretive research. The examples should be from within the past five years. You could find these on University websites, through academic journals, and/or popular science outlets. In your answer, describe the study (including a link). Next, explain how the research exemplifies a trait, method, and concern of this approach as discussed in lecture. Your answer should explain a trait and then explain how it shows up in the sample study; explain a methodological approach (e.g., surveys) and how that shows up in the sample; explain a methodological concern…
- Find and discuss an example of rhetorical OR critical research. The examples should be from within the past five years. You could find these on University websites, through academic journals, and/or popular science outlets. In your answer, describe the study (including a link). Next, explain how the research exemplifies a trait, method, and concern of this approach as discussed in lecture. Your answer should explain a trait and then explain how it shows up in the sample study; explain a methodological approach (e.g., surveys) and how that shows up in the sample; explain a methodological concern…
itself. (Huysmans, 1998) therefore, it is crucial that the social environment has to be developed over time to ensure that certain contextual factors are shaped effectively so that it will have a positive impact on the definition of security. Another weakness of the securitisation theory, is they fail to consider external factors. Second generation scholars stress the lack of focus on external context of securitisation such as gender, institutional setting, cultural or regional environment. (Wilkinson, 2011) For example during the Cold War, Nato and EU come together effectively to support one another during time of war. All the international actors get together, ignoring cultural and national differences each country have to face the threat. The end of the Cold War results in the tensions between these countries rising again, so these international actors worked alongside each other to face the common threat and to work together for national security culture. Due to the fact that the Copenhagen School fails to consider these factors, an alternative model is proposed in which agent, act, and context embody different levels of securitization analysis which presents a more complex understanding of the link between the agents and the systems. (Balzacq, 2010) The agent-structure perspective, both agents and the structures are “into dynamic of action and change” – on the securitisation process, concerns the mutually agreed process where securitising actors and audience, texts and context-structure are all interconnected and embedded. (Stritzel, 2007) This model argues that the socio-political dimension including all the functions within the securitisation process has interchangeable roles, this model goes on to argue that the socio-linguistic approach, threats are developed by securitising actors through discourse. Another type of securitisation is environmental securitisation. Buzan’s definition of environmental securitisation is that the “environmental sector of security is about relationships between human activity and the planetary biosphere”. (Buzan et al, 1998) The environment is an interdependent sector in society within which security is framed; this is because of the importance of maintaining the environment in order to ensure the survival of humankind as the environment is considered the “essential support system on which all other human enterprises depend.” (Buzan et al, 1998) Environmental securitisation is seen in a global context because the degradation of the environment means the state, audience and referent object can be interchangeable social construction. In this regard, threat to the environment include global warming, deforestation and desertification; this idea of environmental securitisation clashes with the state-centric position that military issues are the only threat for states. However, securitisation can only intercede in an issue if it is considered a threat where extraordinary powers are required for the issue to be dealt with, thus specific>GET ANSWER