Adults in the last stage of their lives often prefer to spend time doing favorite activities and socializing with those who are close to them. By this stage, most adults are retired and living a life that can become complicated by new choices such as type of living arrangements or loss of freedoms (e.g., driving). Use the information from your Reading to respond to the following questions.
Using one of the theories in your Reading, why do you think an older adult might choose to live in the same house that she has occupied for most of her adult life, rather than moving into a smaller apartment? Explain.
Why do you think that some adults become bitter as they face death while others remain positive and active?
Propose a plan for addressing some aspect of bereavement for a group therapy session (e.g., stage of grief).
The tubed pedicle fold is a surgery created in the 1910's that permits the development of tissue starting with one piece of the body then onto the next in the reconstructive treatment of imperfections. It changed the field of plastic medical procedure and prompted the introduction of methodology that are typical today. The improvement of the tubed pedicle fold, be that as it may, was not an oddity. Or maybe it was the following stage in a long history of progress towards autologous folds that started 3000 years earlier. The advancement that prompted the tubed pedicle relied upon a few factors—a huge volume of wounds from war and the modern upheaval, the improvement of restorative and careful information, and the improvement of innovation that balanced out injury patients. Progress, for this situation, was subject to the developments of individual specialists just as the tide of therapeutic information that stretches into artifact. Moreover, the response by people in general and medicinal network to this strategy in the mid twentieth century and the field that it birthed was overwhelmingly constructive and considered its brisk reception. As will be believed to be the situation for reconstructive methodology in ancient times, the tubed pedicle fold was created in parallel by two separate specialists in various nations. Vladimir Petrovich Filatov, and ophthalmologist in Odessa, was given a patient in 1916 that endured a harmful tumor of the correct lower eyelid and would require a mass of tissue to supplant the shortfall brought about by evacuating the disease. In the wake of endeavoring a cylinder pedicle on a bunny, Filatov raised the primary human cylinder pedicle, raising a bit of skin and tissue into a chamber. Following twenty days he stretched the cylinder at that point withdrew the lower end and flipped it into the gap left by the tumor in a third activity four days after the fact. He distributed articles on his "round pedicle" in Russian, German and French somewhere in the range of 1917 and 1927: 'This involves another rule which ensures sustenance of the transplanted fold, and, in portraying my case it isn't so a lot of the plastic technique of the eyelid that I am proposing as it is a strategy for the development of a supplement pedicle. This is regardless of the kind of plastic strategy and its area, gave there is an obvious requirement for a long pedicle fold. It tends to be utilized in different plastic strategies of the eyelid, lips, nose, and so forth. On the off chance that future perceptions affirm my expectations with regards to the stalklike round pedicle (and each reason bolsters this) at that point plastic tasks (ophthalmological as well as some careful ones) will be impressively streamlined. Despite the fact that I don't wish to foreordain the kind of condition to which the round stalklike pedicle can be applied, I would already be able to see some extra uses and changes in its applications.' (Wallace) Sir Harold Gillies autonomously designed the tubed pedicle on October 3, 1917 to treat a patient with a serious facial consume (Figure 1) and along these lines showed the system to others in Europe and America: 'This poor mariner was rendered revoltingly frightful and well-near crippled by horrible consumes got in the skirmish of Jutland. How a man can endure such a shocking consume is hard to envision, until one has met one of these survivors from fire, and understands the voracious confidence which helps them through nearly anything … The procedure of thought on the issue drove one to choose a twofold pedicled chest fold, the pedicles to be tubed to forestall their being contaminated or uncovered, to leave connected to these pedicles as enormous a chest fold as was esteemed reasonable and afterward to put this huge fold onto the face, extracting the territory shrouded by it … concerning the crude zone of the chest no endeavor at conclusion was made and the fundamental line of treatment did for this region was the utilization of paraffin No. 7. At one phase hot fomentations were likewise applied to clean the surface. No uniting from the patient was endeavored yet three little joins from another case were laid on the granulations, without progress.' (Gillies, 1920) Figure 1 A) The tubed pedicle utilized by Harold Gillies in remaking the essence of William Vicarage who lost the majority of his jaw in the Battle of Jutland in WWI. B) The Tubed Pedicle, Plastic Surgery of the Face (Gillies, 1920) The main significant timeframe that sees the introduction of an autologous fold begins in times long past and extends until the Industrial insurgency in the eighteenth century. This period contained the development of anatomic information, demonstrated by crafted by Galen in the third century CE, just as early littler systems that built up the underlying standards of the field of plastic medical procedure. As some time in the past as 800 BCE, the ayurvedic doctor Sushruta of India portrayed a nearby fold for the nose in Samhita, a strategy where a little fix of skin from the cheek was pivoted so as to use for the reproduction of a nose (Muley). 'The segment of the nose to be secured ought to be first estimated with a leaf. At that point, a bit of skin of the necessary size ought to be dismembered from the living skin of the cheek, and went back to cover the nose, keeping a little pedicle appended to the cheek. The piece of the nose to which the skin is to be joined ought to be made crude, by cutting the nasal stump with a blade. The doctor at that point should put the skin on the nose and join the two sections quickly, keeping the skin appropriately raised, by embeddings two cylinders oferanda (the castor-oil plant) in the situation of the nostrils, with the goal that the new nose has legitimate shape. The skin along these lines appropriately balanced, it should then be sprinkled with a powder of liquorice, red shoe wood, and barberry plant. At long last, it ought to be secured with cotton, and clean sesame oil ought to be persistently applied. At the point when the skin has joined together and granulated, if the nose is excessively short or excessively long, the center of the fold ought to be separated, and an undertaking made to extend or abbreviate it.' (Sushruta samhita) A comprehension of life structures was likewise required for movement towards a tubed pedicle fold and facial reproduction. Old Greek and Roman developments added to this information with Herophilus of Chalcedon playing out the principal recorded cadaveric analyzations in Alexandria around 250 BCE and Galen (131–221 CE) delivering an investigation of strong life systems from his work on creatures. The Romans Celsus and Oribasisus archived pedicled folds that took into consideration the reproduction of noses, ears, brows and lips in the first and fourth hundreds of years, separately. While each particular human progress contained the anatomic information, injury wounds from war, and innovation developments vital for the movement of plastic medical procedure, the language and correspondence boundary among Indian and Greek/Roman civic establishments prompted the headways to grow independently yet in parallel and averted joint effort or critical progression. With the breakdown of the Roman Empire and the start of the European Dark Ages, the incessant fighting gave various patients needing remaking however the absence of information and urban life prompted a ban in the movement towards an autologous tubed pedicle fold and the advancement of plastic medical procedure. War gave most of wounds requiring recreation before the modern unrest. Wounds from discharges prompted huge grimness and mortality on the front lines starting in the fifteenth century. Since drain and sepsis took need over stylish and useful reproduction, procedures in military injury care needed to create preceding the standards of plastic medical procedure. The utilization of burning and dressings (absorbed ephedra) to decrease discharge and stun was recorded by the Arabs, Greeks and Chinese as ahead of schedule as 900 CE (Cox). Following the dim ages, early medieval Europe saw the rediscovery of plastic medical procedure standards depicted in early artifact and a movement of anatomic information. Without a huge increment in the group of information in regards to life systems since Galen's work in the third century CE, the resurrection of progress discovered its home at the University of Bologna in the twelfth and thirteenth hundreds of years. Ugo Borgognoni of Lucca and his child Theodoric performed cadaveric analyzations on the executed of their time in a University that was isolated from the Catholic Church. Notwithstanding the fundamental life structures that Borgognoni and his child found, Guglielmo da Saliceto (1210–1277 CE) archived the presence and area of engine nerves—a key segment of pedicled folds. Much progressively basic to permitting the tubed pedicles of Gillies, Mondino de Liuzzi (1270–1326 CE) infused hued color into vessels and started mapping the circulatory framework. This work would proceed in the nineteenth and twentieth hundreds of years so as to characterize the precise vessels that provided tissue folds, taking into account their development to various areas in the body and ensuing reproduction (Fang). Ibn Abi Usaibia (1203-1270 BCE) of Damascus had deciphered the Sushruta samhita from Sanskrit to Arabic and it in the end was spread to Persia and Egypt. This inevitably turned into the Cerrahiyet-ul Haniye (Imperial Surgery, fifteenth century) therapeutic map book in Europe and was gotten by Gustavo Branca of Italy who utilized Sushruta's temple fold system for recreation of the nose (Rana). This spread of therapeutic information crosswise over civic establishments was a urgent advance in the movement towards an autologous tubed pedicle fold and the improvement of the standards of plastic medical procedure. Branca's child Antonia reproduced a nose utilizing tissue from within a patient's upper arm in the fifteenth century, as did Heinrich von Pfolsprundt of Germany (1450 CE) and the Vianeo Brothers of Calabria. Bartholommeo Fazio composes: 'Branca, the senior, was the innovator of a splendid and practically amazing thing. He imagined how he may fix and supplant noses that had been mangled and cut off, and formed his thoughts into a radiant workmanship. Furthermore, the child An>GET ANSWER