Ch.14. 15, and 16 from the book African American Odyssey by Hine. From the reading of these chapters. please answer the following questions: 1. Images of -Blackface” and -KKK Outfits” and the Black experience in the U.S.
- Booker T. Washington. his contributions, and his ideas about the fight for racial equality 3. W E.B. DuBois. his contributions, and his ideas about the fight for racial equality 4. Significance of the Niagara Movement 5. Other groups and organizations that were involved in the struggle for racial equality 6. The White response 7. Reasons for the Great Migration of Blacks from the South to the North 8. Issues related to Black men servicing in World War I 9. Overview of the Race Riots that occurred throughout the country
Presentation A Green rooftop is a top of a structure that is somewhat or totally secured with live vegetation. The vegetation is normally planted over a waterproof material. The green rooftop does not allude to the housetops that are just hued green. Green rooftops may likewise incorporate extra layers of root hindrances and water system frameworks. For the situation where plants are developed in pots and after that put in rooftop beat, these are not viewed as evident green rooftops. Rooftop top lakes are another type of green rooftop and are utilized to treat dim water (Little, standard. 1). Dark water is any water that has been utilized in the home for the motivations behind washing aside from water from toilets. Water from clothing, sinks and showers is altogether alluded to as dark water. This water as a rule goes to squander however it might be reused for different purposes, particularly water system. Dark water may thusly be hurried to rooftop gardens. Green rooftops are likewise alluded to as rooftop gardens and eco-rooftops. Little says that rooftop nurseries fill a few needs for a structure, for example, retaining water, giving protection to the structure, making territory for natural life, and furthermore bringing down urban temperatures hence bringing down the warmth island impact (Little, standard. 1). There are two kinds of green rooftops: escalated green rooftops and broad green rooftops. Escalated green rooftops are thicker and can bolster a more extensive assortment of plants. They are heavier and require a ton of upkeep. They are made so that they are open. The other kind of green rooftops is called broad green rooftops. These kinds of green rooftops are secured by lighter vegetation and are simpler to keep up than the serious green rooftops. They are fundamentally created for tasteful purposes, yet additionally have different points of interest to the earth. Green rooftops can likewise be utilized to allude to the kinds of rooftops that can utilize some type of green innovation, for example, cool rooftop with photovoltaic modules. Photovoltaic modules are interconnected gathering of sun oriented cells. The primary reason for the sun oriented board is to change over the sun oriented vitality into power. Natural focal points of green rooftops Populace development on the planet today is occurring at an extremely quick rate. Numerous urban areas on the planet are quickly winding up exceedingly urbanized with the development of structures and structures in close contact with one another. Expanded development of solid structures has prompted the loss of green spread in this way making a great deal of ecological issues, for example, urban warmth island impact. This has produced a significant increment in air temperature in urban regions. The vitality utilization has expanded as a result of the warmth island impact. Plants and vegetations assume an extremely crucial job in catching soil and residue particles noticeable all around. Plants likewise use carbon dioxide during the time spent photosynthesis and create oxygen and glucose atoms during the day. This aides in decrease of carbon dioxide noticeable all around just as expanding the measure of oxygen noticeable all around. During the time spent urban improvement, trees are chopped down at an extremely high rate. This prompts bringing down of the air quality as levels of carbon dioxide will increment and oxygen levels decline. As per Dowdey (para 3), places where there are no housetop gardens, water streams quick from the structures' rooftops into the sewer and in situations where the sewer can't adapt to the measure of water spilling out of the rooftop tops, floods happen . The primary driver of island warmth impact in the urban regions is the assimilation and maintenance of sun based warmth in structures and other solid structures bringing about the air temperature in such zones getting to be hotter than in the country zones. Increment in temperature implies that the cooling heap of these structures should be expanded. This implies more vitality will be required by the conditioners which will consequently discharge all the more warm fumes air into the outside in this manner irritating the urban warmth island impact. Rooftop nurseries have been appeared to bring down the surface temperature and the air temperature enormously. Little expresses that the primary motivation behind why green rooftops bring down these temperatures is on the grounds that, they spread the warmth engrossing surfaces of the rooftop beat just as the evapotranspiration cooling impacts of the plants. Improving Air quality Rooftop vegetation improves the air quality by going about as a channel to trap air borne dust particles. A rooftop that has a high temperature will in general make a warm draft pulling in residue particles from the roads. The green rooftops have been found to direct the warm draft along these lines lessening the temperature distinction between the rooftop tops and the boulevards. Green rooftops likewise help to lessen the development of exhaust cloud. Exhaust cloud is exceptionally delicate to high temperatures and the truth of the matter is the higher the temperature, the higher the centralization of brown haze. As per Dowdey, plants through the procedure of photosynthesis ingest carbon dioxide and discharge oxygen into the environment accordingly improving the air quality (Dowdey, standard. 4). Improving water quality The green rooftop sift through a large portion of the substantial metals and supplements present in water. This is helpful in urban regions where precipitation is gathered for household utilization. Decrease of tempest water Rooftop plant enclosures hold the greater part of water on the rooftop through the different layers and essentially lessen the pinnacle release stream rate into the tempest water seepage framework. This diminishes the danger of glimmer flooding. Vitality protection At the point when surfaces retain a great deal of sunlight based warmth, urban warmth island is the subsequent impact. This thus causes a significant increment in the air temperature inside the urban focuses. This will thus prompt a great deal of vitality utilization for cooling loads. Rooftop nurseries help to assimilate a great deal of sun powered warmth that would somehow or another expansion the barometrical temperature. Cooling burdens will accordingly not be required to such an incredible degree and henceforth decrease in vitality utilization will be the valuable result. Green rooftops additionally help in diminishing warmth misfortune and vitality utilization in winter conditions (Kuhn, p 5). The green space Green spaces are useful to individuals living and working in the urban focuses. These spaces help in supporting biodiversity, relaxing the structure's condition, and helping people groups' psychological and physical wellbeing. Green rooftops improve the estimation of the green space by giving available green space. Green rooftops are exceptionally speaking to the individuals who take a gander at them. Some green rooftops can be intended for individuals to appreciate (Dowdey, standard. 7). Money saving advantage In the event that half of the rooftops in Tokyo were secured with rooftop plants, an examination demonstrated that air temperature could be diminished from between 0.11°c to 0.84°c. Interpretation of these considers along with genuine dollar worth assessed that $1.6 million every day in power bill could be accomplished as vitality reserve funds. Kuhn (p 6) expresses that about 15% of yearly vitality sparing can be accomplished with rooftop gardens. Cooling burdens can be definitely diminished up to 80% bringing about cutting back of cooling frameworks which would significantly improve reserve funds in capital ventures. A decrease of pinnacle rooftop warm exchange estimation of up to 80% make the rooftop best a feasible substitute for warm protection. Expansion of rooftop life As indicated by Dowdey, rooftop plant enclosures secure the water sealing film just as the rooftop top surfaces from the destructive impacts of the ultra violet beams. A large portion of the water which would typically achieve the roofing material causing clamminess and rust is either taken by the plants or held by the water confirmation layer (para 8). Assurance of the water sealing layer and the roofing material stretches out their life to around multiple times their normal life. The water evidence material and the roofing material itself won't be messed with during the time spent customary substitution. This enormously improves the future of the roofing materials. Green rooftops additionally assume a significant job in shielding rooftops from human traffic, overwhelming flotsam and jetsam and residue particles. This implies the rooftops are sheltered from being messed with by individuals (Dowdey, standard. 9). Burdens Appropriate getting ready for the establishment of a green rooftop enormously decreases the detriments that might be went with it. Be that as it may, a few kinds of green rooftops do have more requesting auxiliary measures than others. Some current structures can't be retrofitted with particular sorts of green rooftops in light of the weight heap of the substrates and the vegetation which surpass the allowed static stacking, additionally alluded to as the outer power connected to a fixed position for a particular timeframe. Contingent upon the kind of the green rooftop, the expense of upkeep could be high. A few sorts of green rooftops particularly the concentrated green rooftop require a solid water sealing material to keep water and roots from infiltrating the water verification layer. Establishment of sufficient water sealing materials and root obstructions requires a lot of cash. The vegetation on the plant enclosures requires exceptional manures which can some of the time be in all respects expensive (Kuhn, p 7). End Green rooftop are along these lines useful to human as far as ecological assurance as well as regarding economy. Their focal points are a lot of when contrasted with their impediments. The jobs played by green nurseries have an extremely incredible effect in our lives. Change of the earth through bringing down the island heat, overseeing tempest water, lessening air and water contamination and making an untamed life living space are a portion of the green greenhouse's natural advantages. Green rooftops have additionally been appeared to expand the rooftop life just as decrease vitality costs. Remembering the advantages of the rooftop plants, the cost factor might be taken a gander in any event all together for rooftop nurseries to be generally received. Reference: Dowdey, Sarah. What is a Green Roof? , 2009. Recovered on November 27, 2009 from http://science.howstuffworks.com/green-rooftop.htm Kuhn, Monica. Rooftop Gardening, 1996. Re>GET ANSWER