Submit a literature review of approximately 2 pages in length. This does not include reference section. • The literature review must be limited to research in the last 15 years of publications. • Each literature review must contain at least four (4) key search terms, (e.g., depression, adults, Saudi Arabia, treatment). The search could be single or a combination of terms, but does not have to have all 4 terms simultaneously. For example, key search term(s) could be, ‘depression’ or a combinations of key terms, ‘depression and Saudi Arabia’, Adult depression’, ‘depression and treatment’ etc. • Once you have completed your key search using the electronic data base, summarize your findings in the two page assignment. • Please use prose form (i.e., written language that show a grammatical structure and natural flow of speech) for the assignment. • Present the information as an introduction section of a journal article, using a funnel approach, starting with the general view and condensing the information to the specific view/gap in research. • Use the Vancouver style for references. • Upload your assignment to the blackboard through the SafeAssign program. • The assignment has a simple marking format. Completed assignment uploaded prior to the deadline will receive full marks, 10% weighting of final grade. If you fail to upload your assignment, you will receive a 0 mark. • Any assignment showing plagiarism over 30% (excluding references) will be Health Professions Education EDUC 201 Ahmed Serious Student Pre-Medicine Group A Assignment 2: Literature Search February 1, 2016 ? For purposes of this literature search, the PubMed database that is available through the Medical Library of the National Guard Health Services was utilized. The focus of the research was depression amongst women in the Middle East and the relationship between depression and stressful life events. For this reason, the following four search terms were used: depression, Middle East, women, stressful life events. As a result of using these 4 search terms, 19 articles were found. The following provides a brief summary of information contained in those articles. Major depression is one of most common mental illnesses in the world, affecting many people across social class, age, nationality, ethnicity, and culture. This disorder places an enormous burden on society. Worldwide, it is the leading cause of years lived with disability and the 4th leading cause of burden among all diseases. The World Health Organization estimates that by the year 2020, depression will be the greatest burden of ill health to people.1 Two of the most widely replicated findings for major depression are its greater prevalence in women and its association with stressful life events.2-4 In general, women are twice as likely to suffer from the disorder as men.3 In relation to prevalence, approximately 1 in 5 women and 1 in 10 men can expect to experience depression in their lifetime. The prevalence and incidence of depression varies throughout the world. Higher rates are found in developed countries, particularly Europe and the United States. The lowest rates are reported in Asia and Southeast Asia. Researchers of community populations in the Arab world have found varied rates of depression, ranging from 12 to 32%.5, 6 It was reported in a study conducted in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates that lifetime rates of depression were 10.3% for females and 2.8% for males.7 The authors of this study noted that this is the highest female/male ratio reported in the literature. Al-Otaibi et al recently reported prevalence rates of 21.7% for females and 15.3% for males in a study of depressive symptoms among Kuwaiti population attending a primary health care setting.8 This is similar to results obtained in a study conducted in Saudi Arabia in which 20% (67.4% of these female; 32.6% male) of patients attending primary health care were diagnosed with depression using the PHQ (Patient Health Questionnaire).9 A few researchers have explored the factors that contribute to depressive disorders and symptoms in Arab women in the Middle East. It was noted in the Al-Ain study that gender, life events, and chronic difficulties were risk factors for depression in the community sample [6]. In research of a female population in the Amman area of Jordan, the following psychosocial risk factors were found: financial problems, significant health problems, history of separation, family problems, separation/divorce, work stress, and income.10 A limited number of studies have explored the factors that are related to depressive symptoms in Arab women in the Middle Eastern region, and an even rarer number have investigated the role of stressful life events in depression. For this reason, it will be important to conduct future research in this area in various countries of the Middle East. This is important for development of appropriate prevention and treatment strategies. ? References 1. World Health Organization. Depression [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2005 Sept 17]. Available from: 2. Kendler KS, Karkowski LM, & Prescott CA. Causal relationship between stressful life events and the onset of major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1999; 156(6):837-841. 3. Kendler KS, Thornton LM, & Prescott CA. Gender differences in the rates of exposure to stressful life events and sensitivity to their depressogenic effects. Am J Psychiatry. 2001; 158(4):587-593. 4. Kessler RC. The effects of stressful life events on depression. Annu Rev Psychol. 1997; 48:191-214. 5. El-Akabawi AS, & Fekri I. Anxiety and depressive disorder among users of general practice clinic in an industrial community in Cairo. Egypt J Psychiatry. 1983; 8:107–115. 6. Ghubash R, Hamdi E, & Bebbington P. The Dubai community psychiatric survey III. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatric Med. 1994; 24:121–131. 7. Daradkeh TK, Ghubash R, & Abou-Saleh MT. Al-Ain community survey of psychiatric morbidity: II. Sex differences in the prevalence of depressive disorders. J Affect Disord. 2002; 72(2):167-177. 8. Al-Otaibi B, Al-Weqayyan A, Taher H, Sarkhou E, Gloom A, Aseeri F, Al-Mousa, E, Al-Zoubi H & Habeeba S. Depressive symptoms among Kuwaiti population attending primary health care setting: prevalence and influence of sociodemographic factors. Med Princ Pract. 2007; 16(5):384-388. 9. Becker SM. Detection of somatization and depression in primary care in Saudi Arabia. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr

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