Conduct an internet search on “happiness”. Spend time reading and browsing through the first page two or three pages of results. What will readers discover from conducting this exercice? What definitions of happiness, approaches to the study of happiness, projects on happiness, insights about happiness, and ways of achieving happiness will this brief internet search reveal?
The idea that migrants to Canada retain their cultural identity as part of a mosaic rather than assimilating has been contradicted by sociological research. Rather than retaining all unique cultural or social characteristics over time, immigrant minorities do appear to assimilate in certain key ways. Some migrant groups have considerably greater rates of gender inequality in labour force participation than is found in mainstream Canadian populations (Reitz, Phan, & Banerjee, 2015). This inequality is greatest among religious groups such as Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs, though it appears to reflect national cultures in countries of origin more than it reflects differences in religious beliefs concerning the social roles of men and women (Reitz, Phan, & Banerjee, 2015). Recent migrants to Canada, in other words, retain the gendered division of labour found in their home countries to an extent that distinguishes them from the rest of the Canadian workforce. The research also indicates, however, that this difference tends to fade over time, with longer settled migrants reflecting general labour force participation rates to a greater degree (Reitz, Phan, & Banerjee, 2015). This suggests that these groups are assimilating with regards to Canadian norms of work and gender. A similar finding has been observed in education. Immigrants who come to Canada as children or are second generation have more years of schooling and higher high school completion rates when compared with third-plus generation Canadians (Boyd, 2002). This is in contrast to the United States, where segmented assimilation creates an underclass characterized by reduced levels of educational attainment (Boyd, 2002). These results suggest that migrants to Canada are assimilating to a considerable degree when it comes to work and education, adopting the practices and values at the heart of Canadian socioeconomic life. One view of the Canadian cultural mosaic, then, is that migrants assimilate into mainstream culture related to shared social and economic values while retaining distinctive religious beliefs and cultural practices. This view of multiculturalism has been supported by research into how religious or ethnic minorities are perceived by other Canadians. One study of Quebec Francophones found that respondents did not view an Arab Muslim woman less favourably when she was presented to them in either Western clothing or traditional Muslim clothing such as the niqab or hijab (El-Geledi & Bourhis, 2012). This shows that Canadian society adapts itself to new concepts of multiculturalism in response to immigration. While this process takes time and may entail opposition and bigotry along the way, it does suggest that immigrant groups tend to assimilate and integrate into Canadian society. The distinction between cultural mosaic and melting pot can be related to sociological co>GET ANSWER