Neurobiology: Critical analysis of DEFICITS IN COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY INDUCED BY CHRONIC UNPREDICTABLE STRESS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH IMPAIRED GLUTAMATE NEUROTRANSMISSION IN THE RAT MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX
Authors publish research for a variety of reasons, most importantly to disseminate their findings. Readers of published work should not simply take the authors data and interpretation at face value. Rather, readers should learn to critically evaluate the journal articles before agreeing with the data and interpretation.
A critical analysis of a paper is a way for readers to systematically identify both the strengths and weaknesses of the research article in order to assess the usefulness and validity of research findings. The goal of this exercise is to help you to develop your critical analysis skills and your scientific writing skills. For each critical analysis you write (you are expected to write 3!), you will write a brief (500 word maximum) report.
There are several different approaches to conducting a critical analysis.
I have outlined several approaches that you could take below. This is not an exhaustive list and so you should feel free to use other approaches to the critique if you see fit. Do NOT try to take all of the approaches in a single analysis.
- Identify the hypothesis and the rationale for the hypothesis. Outline the argument that the authors make to justify the hypothesis (es) they have for the experiment. Further, are their weaknesses in their argument? Lastly, is the experiment addressing a significant problem? Why or why not?
- Briefly describe the experimental design. How does this design allow the authors to address the hypothesis (es)?
a. Are there limitations to the design? If so, what are some of the limitations?
- What are the results? Moreover, how does each experiment address the hypotheses? Are there any experiments that don’t address the hypothesis, if so, what are they? Are their limitations to the data analysis?
- Identify the conclusions? Are these conclusions justified? What are the limitations?
a. Are there alternative interpretations of the results? Explain.
- In the discussion, identify statements that are speculation/interpretation? Also, identify statements that are “fact”? Lastly, how did you delineate between these two types of statements?
The assaults of 11 September denoted the start of a significant new part of the war on dread. From that point forward, the United States embraced the mystery confinement framework moving the CIA job from spying to capture and torment under the reason of battling psychological oppression. On 17 September 2001, President Bush approved the Director of the CIA to take part covertly insight. CIA exercises in the 'war on dread' since 11 September 2001 assault the supposed remarkable interpretations just as the mystery confinement program and the related charges of torment. In the years after the announcement of the 'War on Terror' in September 2001, the United States Government drove the path in building a worldwide arrangement of confinement outside the law. Unlawful detainee moves between states (version) and barbaric cross examination of prisoner included torment. The instance of the mystery US penitentiaries "Dark Sites" in some European nations is that the CIA has concurrences with some European nations about the utilization of mystery jails for cross examining prisoners associated with "Al-Qaeda." The Large exertion made during the twentieth Century to build up European administration systems expected to guarantee the acknowledgment of human rights. The Council of Europe Report said that specific European Governments knew about the flights sorted out by American insight through European airspace or air terminals. Another remarkable issue that some European nations include in such practices, however such European States had marked the Council of Europe Charter against torment while today it blamed for harboring these mystery jails. Extraordinary estimates that the administration has taken since the United States (US) assaults on 11 September 2001. The military exercises of the US government and its partners in Iraq and Afghanistan, the exercises of the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) .Such scenes of detainment and embarrassment as represented, the US origination of the battle against fear mongering prompted the utilization of exceptional instruments by CIA. There are not kidding claims that the CIA has utilized methods for torment. This paper has recommended that lighting up exercises gained from this instance of remarkable version. The most point by point examination concerning this issue so far did by the COE Rapporteur Dick Marty. He kept up in two reports that somewhere in the range of 2001 and 2006, European airspace utilized for flights worked by the CIA, and probably some of them with the end goal of remarkable interpretation. 1.1 Introduction to the subject In the report arranged by the Swiss Senator Dick Marty to the Council of Europe recognized that the U.S is holding suspects on European nations domains where they face torment. Marty started his examination in November 2004 to the Council of Europe the most noteworthy structure skillful to think about human rights. Marty blamed the European nations for being associated with these tasks, saying that it is outlandish that such exercises occur without the known about such nations. The Swiss examination centered in his report to the Council of Europe on singular cases who abducted by the CIA and blamed a number for Eastern European nations facilitated mystery jails. Specialists from the Council of Europe got chronicles of Euro control; the body liable for flying wellbeing in Europe that track down flights suspected. Information Study on global air traffic during 2003 uncovered a site in Romania and a previous military air terminal in northeastern Poland. The Romanian Prime Minister Calin Tarino expressed: There are "no CIA bases in Romania" neither Poland, where the previous Defense Minister Jerzy Smadgenski stated: "We don't capture any fear based oppressors here.' Moreover, a portion of the primary suspects in what is known "Dread" are being held in Europe, Spain, Netherlands, Romania, Iceland and Poland's engaged with move knowledge officials and prisoners to and from the mystery detainment facilities. There is proof, for instance, that states facilitated US mystery jails, for example, Poland thought about what was happening and gave key calculated help and strategic spread to encourage tasks. Different states assumed a key job in the catch of individual prisoners, and their exchange to US powers for version, mystery confinement, and misuse. For this exertion, Spain started an examination about CIA planes conveying speculates halted in the Spanish region. On Nov.2005, the Spanish Interior Minister said on TV discourse - if these claims demonstrated such exercises may contrarily influence the relations between the Spanish Government and U.S. The American knowledge associated with utilizing Majorca's air terminal in such flights. This examination continues as pursues; the main section contain the presentation and the writing survey. In the second section a short portrayal about the gathering of Europe organizations and devices. Part three will show US mystery administration responses to 11 September and give an outline of different subjects as the September 11 assaults in the US, the advancement of the version program and mystery CIA jails in Europe. While the fourth section inspects Council of Europe reactions, the types of interpretation and the contribution by European nations and investigates the association of European nations that has researched by the Council of Europe. In view of this methodology exhibited section five will look at the Council of Europe response and spotlight on addressing the exploration question; how did the Council of Europe react to unlawful exchanges and mystery detainment in Europe by the CIA? In the event that the Council of Europe explores concern the presence of mystery US detainment facilities on European, regions accomplished the focused on question how such occurrences can maintained a strategic distance from later on and to what degree the Council of Europe can successfully ensure human rights even against the CIA/US government. The 6th and 'nal segment will be the end.>GET ANSWER