The work of Lew (2003) gives an intensive observation of tourism in China, which is one of the primary elements of present volatile economic advancement. From a multidisciplinary perspective, the author explores on the chronicle evolution of China’s tourism principles that enable experts to investigate the policies, growth, and programming of the industry, alongside hotel investments and hospitality education. In the paper, international and domestic tourism in China are considered for a clear understanding of its impact on the economy, society, and China environment. The author debates on the limited understanding of the strong consequence of racial overseas Chinese on the PRC’s tourism growth together with the influence of the uprising Tiananmen. Winding up this work, the author gives an analysis of the predicted future of China’s development from the tourism industry.
The work of Lew (2003) is very useful as it gives a historical development of tourism and its impact in China in varied seasons and periods. Furthermore, it allows the author to tell on the influencing factor to the evolution of international and domestic tourism in China. This paper correlates with other papers on Chinese tourism as it explains the evolution of tourism from the past to the present time. The method of reviewing literature was essential to get information on the advancement of tourism in China over time. However, the article is biased since it only compares tourism in China to the few developed nations as opposed to the world, limiting the understanding of international tourism. The paper is critical for the assignment for it demonstrates the stages through which tourism in China has gone through to get to the current state. It adds knowledge to the subject of the impact of tourism as it explains its origin, factors that led to such occurrences and the impact on the internal and external environments of China.
Zhong, L., Deng, J., Song, Z. and Ding, P., 2011. Research on environmental impacts of tourism in China: Progress and prospect. Journal of environmental management, 92(11), pp.2972-2983.
This work demonstrates the increased usage of natural and cultural surroundings of China as from 1980, and the negative influence of resources on tourism destinations. Zhong et al (2011) used the technique of literature review to explain the manner in which research tourism influenced the varied environments of China such as biophysical, social, and cultural environments of China. Extensively, it reviewed the effect of tourism on its carrying capability, measure, and valuing of environment eminence for the conservation and administration of tourism resources. The authors realized that quite a number of data developed on the impact of tourism on the Chinese environment were descriptive, with no case studies and perspective advancement. They recommended on the need for future research to be grounded on the assessment of environmental effects, especially the progressive accumulative consequences on tourism environment. Additionally, the article also advises on the need for quantitative connections between influence and the degree in which tourism is employed for varied purposes, alongside the formation of techniques to give approximations of carrying capacity and positive influence of tourism.
The contributions of Zhong et al (2011) is important in getting the collective data on the impact of tourism on the environment, possible positive steps taken over the subject as well as the loops. The objective of the paper is to review existing data on the link between environment and tourism. In as much as the information is reliable, the paper follows the same line of descriptive statistics it critiques of other authors in this field. It would be essential for the authors to give a methodology to be adopted for the development of quantitative studies while looking at the relationship between effects of the environment on tourism resources.
The arguments of Zhong et al are resourceful in getting information on the relationship between environment and tourism. It is of benefit to studying the limitations of the impact of tourism leaning on one technique (qualitative) as opposed to a quantitative approach. The paper alters the thoughts of scholars to look at the link between environment and tourism in China from a different perspective to get numeric to apprehend the descriptive information.
Zhang, H., Fu, X., Cai, L.A. and Lu, L., 2014. Destination image and tourist loyalty: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management, 40, pp.213-223.
The work of Zhang et al (2014) demonstrates the connection between tourist loyalty and destination image. It showed a great relationship existing between the influences of destination image on tourist loyalty on varied levels. The authors found out that the general image had more impact on tourist fidelity compared to the affective and cognitive images. The cognitive and affective images did not demonstrate and standard consequence on tourist loyalty. However, destination image successively influenced behavioral, attitudinal, and composite loyalty.
The purpose of the paper was defined by the multifaceted feature of the destination and tourist loyalty. The authors demonstrated the connection between the two concepts by use of meta-analysis. The methodology allowed the drawing of a conclusion by using a research technique that led to the development of hypotheses. The method is essential for replication and direction of studies in the future. However, the method is limiting as it leads to loss of contextual data like features of samples and diversity in the quality of the design. Compared to other articles, the paper gives empirical data on the varied effects of destination, cognitive, and affective images on tourist loyalty. In as much as it is essential for understanding the relationship between destination image and tourist loyalty, it is limited to examining the influence of destination image on tourist loyalty while there are a number of factors that impact on tourist loyalty as opposed to the destination only.
The ideology of Zhang et al (2014) is helpful to the students and tourist companies in China and beyond to consider improving on their destination images to earn the loyalty of tourists for better earnings from the industry. It is critical in building the understanding of the audience on the manner in which meta-analysis can be used in scrutinizing the impact of destination on tourism. This alters the manner in which the audience considers the connection between the concept alongside other factors affecting tourist loyalty. Tsang, N.K. and Hsu, C.H., 2011. Thirty years of research on tourism and hospitality management in China: A review and analysis of journal publications. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(4), pp.886-896.
Tsang and Hsu (2011) give a review of 119 articles from leading English journals published from 1978 to 2008 on the impact of tourism in China. It pulls out on the issues surrounding tourism and customer behavior, a concept that is likely to remain a theme study for many years. The authors also demonstrated a trend to multiple-authorship as opposed to single authors, alongside complicated methodology used in accomplishing the paper. The authors reported that China has experienced swift progress since 1978 and is predicted to be the largest in the tourism industry by the year 2020. Although the authors did not manage to complete review of the literature, it developed and international learning institutions denying the audience ability to understand the research on China tourism.
The purpose of the authors was to give an inventory of the available researches carried out on the quality of service in China’s hospitality and tourism markets. It works towards expressing the motivations of unavailability of research in China’s friendliness and tourism as well as the ignoring of the Chinese language literature in the industry. The authors used to review the literature to synthesize the 119 articles to have a wide range of understating from 1978 to 2008. In as much as the paper is essential for the audience in the room, it is limited by the quality since the review of the books does not add any new knowledge, supported by evidence.
The paper is useful to the audience to build on the aspects of tourism hospitality. Its method of reviewing 119 articles enables the reader to have a synthesis of several books put together. The article needs to be updated on a regular basis to enable understating of tourism hospitality in the contemporary world. Comparing to other articles, Tsang and Hsu (2014) have no empirical data and their methodology does not give room for an additional timeframe.
Wong, C.U.I., McIntosh, A. and Ryan, C., 2013. Buddhism and tourism: Perceptions of the monastic community at Pu-Tuo-Shan, China. Annals of Tourism Research, 40, pp.213-234.
The paper is a study of religious tourism and pilgrimages in Chinese Buddhist environment, targeting both the monastic and the tourists. The study was conducted in one of the sacred mountains of China, Pu-Tuo-Shan. It is centered on the manner in which the Buddhist nun and monk welcome their visitors as well as tourists. This context of study has not been widely looked into in China, but the authors made an effort to ensure their work is grounded on how to use religions to improve on tourism and enhance economic improvements. The authors believe that the impact on cultural recreational and religious factors happen in China like any other nations and so affect the monadic life of the Buddhists in Pu-Tuo-Shan. The study demonstrated that religious sites had both secular and significant purposes, which led to the growth of tourists and leading to suspicion of future adverse effects on Buddhist religious practices.
The paper used the exploratory analysis technique to get to the understanding of the impact of religion on tourism. The method allowed development of clusters that showed diverse beliefs, activities, and motives among the groups as enhanced by the logistic regression investigation approach. The article is essential for understanding the relationship between religion and tourism. It points out in areas in tourism that have been ignored, yet they heavily influence the economic development of tourism in the study area. Despite the essence of the article, it is biased as it only considers one religious community and not all within Pu-Tuo-Shan. It would be appropriate if the authors would look at all religious groups to get their effect on tourism. Regardless of the critique, the paper is essential for the audience to venture into a new area of understanding tourism.
Xiao, H. and Smith, S.L., 2006. The making of tourism research: Insights from a social sciences journal. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(2), pp.490-507.
The paper is a presentation of analyzed content on an all-inclusive subject index of Annals of Tourism Research (1973-2003). The authors focused on 27 context regions and an array of designs o show the development of tourism research in a single paper. An important increase in documentation is demonstrated in this work in two core divisions namely; methodology and theory, alongside development and effects. The authors give a description of the concept of methodology and theory in the line of social science research, as it displays three categories of theories on the evolution of studies and scholastic work.
The paper is essential to the audience as it demonstrates the patterns to be adopted to understand the concept of tourism from the viewpoint of social science. It uses empirical data to relate varied methods and theories in understanding the development and impact of tourism in a given context. Xiao and Smith (2006) attempt to help the audience to internalize the issues on tourism to have explanations by supporting the outcomes from given perspective, making the article scientific. However, the paper seems to be very general as it explains the evolution of tourism within a given time frame, with no specific study context. The approach denies the reader the ability to relate the methods and theory to a specific subject matter in the tourism industry.