Perform anthropometry and body composition measurements appropriately and evaluate and analyze measurement data to make normative comparisons.
• Skinfold calipers (If you do not have calipers, they can be found online for around $10)
• Flexible tape measure
• Marking pen
• One tester
• One recorder
Procedure (Obtaining a Skinfold Measurement)
- Skinfold measurements should be made on dry skin, before exercise, to ensure maximum validity and reliability.
- Grasp the skin firmly with the thumb and index finger to form a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat.
- Place the caliper prongs perpendicular to the fold 0.5 to 1 inch (approximately 1 to 2 cm) from the thumb and index finger.
- Release the caliper grip so that its spring tension is exerted on the skinfold.
- Between 1 and 2 seconds after the grip on the caliper has been released, read the dial on the caliper to the nearest 0.5 mm.
- Obtain one measurement from each test site, and then repeat all test sites for a second trial. If the measurements do not differ by more than 10%, average the two measurements to the nearest 0.5 mm. Otherwise, take one or more additional measurements until two of the measurements are within 10%, and average those two measurements to the nearest 0.5 mm.
Procedure (Measuring the Selected Site and Calculating Body Fat Percentage)
- There are specific equations for estimating body density (Db) (then, in turn, percent body fat [%BF]) for different populations. First, select the equation appropriate for the athlete from table 13.25 in Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, Fourth Edition.
- Refer to the chosen equation and related instructions and mark the skin at the appropriate anatomical sites shown in figure 13.19 in Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, Fourth Edition:
o Chest—a diagonal fold one-half the distance between the anterior axillary line and the nipple for men (figure 13.19a)
o Thigh—a vertical fold on the anterior aspect of the thigh, midway between the hip and knee joints (figure 13.19b)
o Abdomen—a vertical fold 1 inch (2.5 cm) to the right (relative to the athlete) of the umbilicus (figure 13.19c)
o Triceps—a vertical fold on the posterior midline of the upper arm (over the triceps muscle), halfway between the acromion and the olecranon processes (the arm should be in anatomical position with the elbow extended and relaxed [figure 13.19d])
o Suprailium—a diagonal fold above the crest of the ilium at the spot where an imaginary line would come down from the anterior axillary line (figure 13.19e) (some prefer the measure to be taken more laterally, at the midaxillary line)
o Midaxilla—a vertical fold on the midaxillary line at the level of the xiphoid process of the sternum (figure 13.19f)
o Subscapula—a fold taken on a diagonal line that extends from the vertebral border to a point 0.5 to 1 inch (1 to 2 cm) from the inferior angle of the scapula (figure 13.19g)
o Calf—a vertical fold along the medial side of the calf, at the level of maximum calf circumference (figure 13.19h)
Equation for estimating body density (Db): (select the appropriate equation from table 13.25 and enter it here)
Measurements (nearest 0.5 mm)
Skinfold sites (Mark the selected sites) 1 2 3 (if necessary) Average
- Using the appropriate population-specific equation from table 13.25, calculate the estimated body density from the skinfolds.
- Enter the body density into the appropriate population-specific equation from table 13.26 inEssentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, Fourth Edition to calculate the percent body fat from the body density.
Body density: (g/cc)b
Equation to calculate percent body fat from body density (select the appropriate population-specific equation from table 13.25 and enter it here):
Body fat: %
Normative and descriptive data for percent body fat are presented in tables 13.14 through 13.17 and 13.27 in Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, Fourth Edition. Compare your results to normative and descriptive data and provide a summary here.
Translation process is an artistic communication between the author, the translator and the reader and the words used by the translator constitutes the major part in the process of communicating ideas or feelings of the author. “Literature is both the condition and the place of artistic communication between senders and addressees or the public” (Basnett,2002) The translator is the first one who must comprehend, read and interpret the source text then to render it in a different medium. Literary translation includes fiction,poetry, drama and the language arts must be taken into consideration by the translator. The purposes of the translator are to transfer the information but also to create an equivalent form of art. The beauty of the translators’ work is that they bring a great contribution to the creative process being recognized as part of the literary world. The literary translator must therefore possess a great knowledge of both the TL culture and language and the SL culture being able to command to>GET ANSWER