This week’s reading says that invoking “aristocratic elements in a sound democracy” means accepting the premise that some people are more fit to rule (exercise the levers of government) than others. It is thought that in designing the American system of government, our Founders felt that good government would be protected because the system would allow the cream to rise to the top in that the people, when given a choice, would ultimately chose the best and brightest among us to lead – “The Aristocratic Leaven”. Then, once elected, we should allow the leadership to govern without interference.
Think about some of the major issues of today; gun violence, border protection, climate change for example. How free have our elected leaders been to “govern without interference” from things like opinion polls and special interests. In your opinion, has extreme partisanship hindered the government’s ability to govern, in the author’s words, “in consonance with the public good”? Give examples if you like.
nd cold running water, its streets were lit at night (p.175). Different religious groups, such as Christians, Muslims and Jews, successfully interacted with each other. According to Ghazanfar (2004), there existed no separation between science, wisdom, and faith; nor was East separated from the West, nor the Muslim from the Jew or the Christian (p.2). Such religious tolerance can be explained by the fact that the Muslims did not act as oppressors, but, instead, they tried to improve the living conditions of all social classes in Spain. As a result, Christians and Jews occupied the leading positions during the Muslim ruling (Hopfe, 1998). This peaceful co-existence of three religions had continued till the fifteenth century (Thomson, 1989), contributing to many aspects of life in Spain. For instance, in the eleventh century Arabic language was utilised in Spanish science and literature, while Spaniards began to learn the Muslims’ language to acquaint with Arabic writings (Shubert, 1992). Some Christians and Jews borrowed Arabic culture and religion, gradually transforming into Mozarabs, people who were Arabized (Watt, 1965). Many illiterate Spanish people learned to read and write, calculate and navigate (Houston, 1964). As the Muslims preserved some Roman and Greek literary works, Spanish Christians served as translators for these crucial manuscripts. Architecture, philosophy, mathematics and other sciences also prospered under the ruling of the Umayyad dynasty due to their belief in Allah and the laws of the Qur’an, the holy book of the Muslims that accentuated the power of knowledge (Fakhry, 1983). As the Muslims made attempts to understand God, they also tried to uncover the truth about human nature by conducting different researches and scientific investigations (Saud, 1994). For instance, the Muslims substituted the Roman number system existed in Spain for the Arabic number system that has been widely utilised in algebra, arithmetic and business since then. In addition, astronomy, medicine, biology and chemistry began to thrive in Spain after the Islamic invasion (Lewis, 1993). Among the most famous Spanish philosophers, writers, artists and scientists of the Muslim era are Al-Kwarizmi, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Zuhr, Al-Razi and Ibn Sina (Chejne, 1974). Ibn Sina’s medical treatise Al-Qanun had been studied in many European educational establishments for about three hundred years and had been regarded as one of the best medical works (Vernet, 1992). One of the greatest Muslim scholars of Spain was Abu Zakariyah al-Awwam Ishibili who created a procedure of grafting and gave names to more than five hundred plants (Ghazanfar, 2004). Pedro Alfonzo, a Spanish Muslim scholar who was interested in astrono>GET ANSWER