Aristotle thinks that people have to be virtuous to be happy.

  1. Aristotle thinks that people have to be virtuous to be happy. Do you agree with him? Why or why not?
  2. Is the human will free? Why or why not?
  3. If you were in a state of nature, a primitive condition without civil government, would you help people or use your powers to fulfill your desires even if it meant not helping others? Do you think most people would help each other or act from self-interest?
  4. Kant thinks that human beings can know something, like mathematical truth, before experiencing it. Why does he think that? Give an example of what he means. Do you agree or disagree with him? Why?

250 words
• Describe what Hume means when he says that reason is the slave of the passions. Do you agree with Hume that passion—in other words, sentiment—motivates people to act morally and that reason is enslaved to those passions? Explain your answer.

250 words
• Briefly summarize Aquinas’ argument from change, the first of his five ways. Apply one of d’Ailly’s objections to the argument. Do you agree with d’Ailly that human reason is limited regarding proofs of the existence of God? Explain your answer.

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