1. Stand slightly farther than arm’s length from a wall with your arms by your side and hands facing forward at shoulder-level height. Perform each of the following movements fully before proceeding to the next. When finished, you should be reaching with the palm of your hand straight in front of your should to attempt contact with the wall. Your elbow should be fully extended with your glenohumeral joint flexed 90 degrees.
• Glenohumeral flexion to 90 degrees
• Full elbow extension
• Wrist extension to 70 degrees
• Full shoulder girdle protraction
Analyze the movements and muscles responsible for each movement at the shoulder girdle, glenohumeral joint, elbow, and wrist. Include the type of contraction for each muscle for each movement.
2. Face a wall and stand about 6 inches from it. Place both hands on the wall at shoulder level and put your nose and chest against the wall. Keeping your palms in place on the wall, slowly push you body from the wall as in a push-up until your chest is as far away from the wall as possible without removing your palms from the wall surface. Analyze the movements and muscles responsible for each movement at the shoulder girdle, glenohumeral joint, elbow and wrist. Include the type of contraction for each muscle for each movement.
3. What is the difference between the two exercises in Question 1 and 2? Can you perform the movements in Question 2 one step at a time, as you did in Question 1?
4. Prescribe a set of exercises that will ensure development of all large muscle groups (pecs, biceps, triceps, forearms, shoulders, back (trap, rhomboid, lats, erectors), core, glutes, quads, hamstrings, calves) in the body. When listing each exercise, make it clear which major muscle(s) are being worked with that particular exercise. Exercises selected should be appropriate for the majority of people (general population and elite).
5. Do some research and evaluate knowledge of how the culture has changed pertaining to exercise training. What has been historically studied in the past that is still relatable to concept the study of movement (go as back as you can in history if you’d like)? Any philosophical dimensions that pop out that can be directly applied here? (Mention the laws of motion here)
6. In your personal opinion how has researched changed the way we view the study of the human body in relation to specific body movement?


Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.