- Critique the paragraph below with 150 words if you agree or disagree.
Autism fits under the category of a child or adolescent disorder primarily because this is a disability that generally appears before the age of three (National Autism Association, 2019). In my lifetime I have known many friends who have had children with this bio-neurological disorder. The Centers for Disease Control state that autism affects one in fifty-nine children in the U.S. today. Chances are, most of us will know someone personally whose life has been impacted by this disorder. Autism is a spectrum disorder, it refers to a broad range of conditions.
Autism impacts the normal development of the brain in the area of social interaction, communication skills, and cognitive function (National Autism Association, 2019). Individuals with autism typically have difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities. Some children or adolescents with autism can live more independently, while some require a significant amount of support in their daily lives (National Institutes of Health, 2017). Autism is diagnosed four times more often in boys than in girls. This disorder varies greatly from person to person, meaning no two people with autism are alike.
This disorder does not affect life expectancy, however research has shown that the mortality risk is twice as high as the general population, due to drowning and other accidents (National Autism Association, 2019). There are treatment options that can help autism, but there is no cure. Treatment options may include; behavior and communication therapies, educational therapies, language therapy, and medication. Diagnosing autism spectrum disorder can be difficult, since there is no medical test, and no blood test, the DSM-5 is used to look at a child’s behavior to diagnose this disorder.
René Descartes, the father of modern philosophy, adopted the method of doubt to reach the truth. Descartes’ philosophical attitude started in his youth when he realized that he had been accepting many false opinions for true. He wanted to get rid of all the opinions that he had accumulated over the years. Descartes wanted to build a foundation on which all further intellectual enquiries could be built. He felt reason should follow and arrive at certain philosophical truths. There should be no further doubts left after this, which meant that the foundation had to be sound. This approach was known as the Method of Doubt but his rationale and approach has been a subject of controversy for years. He believed never to accept anything as the truth, which he could not accept as obviously true. Everything should be so clearly presented to the mind that there are no doubts left at all. Anything that can be doubted has to be rejected. Reasons to believe something should be ample. The second step is to divide the subject into as many divisions as possible or whatever would help him to understand it better. The third step involved directing his thoughts, taking one step at a time, to reach the underlying complex knowledge. At the end of this, his reviews were so comprehensive, his enumerations so complete, that nothing was left to doubt. The three steps adopted by Descartes is what is adopted in mathematics. He wanted to use this method to reach the truth in philosophy. S V Keeling argues that his method as above rests on three mental operations – intuition, deduction, and enumeration (cited by Burnham, 2006). These operations are based on human reason, on the ability to disseminate information, analyze, and review. Since it is based on the capability of human mind, there is a risk of error due to faulty memory. In the Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes proves the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. He also brings out the real distinction between the mind and the body. He starts this by asserting the need “to demolish everything completely and start again right from the foundations” (AT 7:17). Although the first step was termed as skeptical his skepticism was not for the sake of doubting. He wanted to arrive at the truth through systematic analysis and discarding the untruth. Descartes defines knowledge in terms of doubt: I distinguish the two as follows: there is conviction when there remains some reason, which might lead us to doubt, but knowledge is conviction based on a reason so strong that it can never be shaken by any stronger reason (cited by Norman, 2005). Descartes skeptical approach is based on the principle that there is a distinction between belief and truth (Bellotti, n.d.). It was this conviction that gave rise to the Method of Doubt. After making a cup of tea one may leave it to brew on the kitchen table under the belief that it is ready to be poured and consumed. The truth may be different from the belief, in the sense, someone could have poured the tea and taken it in the meantime. The pot may be empty by this time. The Method of Doubt removes all uncertain beliefs and only beliefs that are true beliefs remain. Descartes applied this theory to a group of beliefs so that beliefs need not be dealt individually. A common characteristic could be determined but this concept again leads one to believe that doubts would be on the entire group or class of beliefs. Here Descartes uses the malicious demon thought experiment. Gassendi criticized this theory saying that Descartes could just have regarded the previous knowledge as uncertain (cited by Norman) instead of demolishing everything. It is not necessary to consider everything as false. He felt that such an a>GET ANSWER