You are one of the Audit Partners of XYZ Certified Chartered Accountants Firm. You have seen a new prospective client, Performance Auto Parts Corporation. Performance Auto Parts has three locations specializing in the sale of motor vehicle auto parts as well as repair to motor vehicles. The business is owned by a widow, Mrs. Armstrong, who inherited the business upon the passing of her husband. Mrs. Armstrong has no relevant business operation skills or knowledge of the industry in which the business operates. She currently is dependent on her team of accounting clerks, led by a Financial Controller to be ethical. The Financial Controller has ultimate authority and makes decisions in all areas of the operations. Mrs. Armstrong does not require a report on the business performance. She is required to sign on all cheques but does not question the expense as long as the Financial Controller authorizes it. The accounting staff consist of six young persons with no prior accounting experience or qualification. Two accounting clerks are located at each of the business locations. They have been trained solely by the Financial Controller. The Financial Controller is paid a bonus, which is a percentage of the net profit. He was overheard by a client expressing his frustration that he has not been able to meet his monthly expenses even though he plays such a key role in the organization. You have successfully managed to schedule a meeting with Mrs. Armstrong.
prepare a power point presentation to be presented at the meeting in an effort to convince Mrs. Armstrong that she needs an external audit. An introduction to your firm and how your certified accountants have satisfied ACCA’s requirements of being chartered. ii. The importance of an external audit along with an explanation of two advantages and two disadvantages to Mrs. Armstrong and or company. iii. The responsibilities of both management at Performance Auto Parts and your firm regarding the performance of an external audit iv.Explain to her what fraud is and how it differs from an error. v.Explain the elements of fraud and why her business is at risk. vi. Explain how a Forensic Audit is done.
Female Athlete Triad: Energy, Menstruation and Bone Density Distributed: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: ninth January, 2018 Disclaimer: This paper has been put together by an understudy. This isn't a case of the work composed by our expert article journalists. You can see tests of our expert work here. Any feelings, discoveries, conclusions or proposals communicated in this material are those of the writers and don't really mirror the perspectives of UK Essays. "Characterize the term the Female Athlete Triad. Clarify the association between the different components of the ternion and their consequences for wellbeing and human execution" Presentation The female competitor set of three alludes to the interrelationships among vitality accessibility, menstrual capacity, and bone mineral thickness (BMD), which may have clinical indications including dietary issues, practical hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis (Nattiv et al. 1994). It is tragically a turmoil which frequently goes unrecognized in female competitors. The female competitor set of three is caused by a vitality deplete where there is a caloric deficitdue to the competitor's vitality consumption surpassing herdietary vitality admission (Nattiv et al. 1994). Regardless of whether known to the competitor or not, thislow level of vitality accessibility causes disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis,which brings about diminished gonadotropin-discharging hormone (GnRH)pulsatility and low luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-animating hormone (FSH) levels (Loucks 1990). This at that point prompts a diminished estrogen generation which causes menstrual brokenness. These diminished estrogen levels thus influence calcium resorption and bone gradual addition, which cause diminished bone wellbeing (Gottschlich and Young, 2006). The 3 parts of the group of three are all between related through physiological and mental means as appeared in Fig. 1. The basic mental weights to over and over put in an execution of ideal standard and frequently the apparent prerequisite to keep up a low weight for specific games, result in a lot of preparing. This vast measure of preparing joined with a low vitality admission, and furthermore notwithstanding the pressure hormones created by mental pressure, may prompt a physiological modification in the endocrinological control of the menstrual cycle, which may prompt the competitor getting to be amenorrhoeic. The result of getting to be amenorrhoeic through brokenness of the hypothalamus and pituitary is that the generation of estrogen will diminish. This hormone has a noteworthy part in keeping up satisfactory BMD. In this manner, a hypo-oestrogenic state is related with a low BMD and an expanded danger of osteoporosis (Birch, 2005). Not all sufferers have every one of the 3 segments of the female competitor set of three in any case. As of late, new investigations are proceeding to rise showing that notwithstanding having just1 or 2 components of the ternion essentially expands these ladies' long haul horribleness. What's more, an investigation by Burrows et al. (2007) has proposed that the present set of three components don't distinguish allwomen in danger from the syndrome,rather thatcriteria, for example, work out related menstrual modifications, scattered eating, and osteopenia might be more fitting (Gottschlich and Young, 2006). Dietary problems There is a lessened vitality accessibility (the measure of dietary vitality staying for other body works after exercise preparing, for example, cell upkeep, thermogenesis, invulnerability, development, generation, and motion) related with cluttered eating which is the consequence of an activity vitality use more prominent than a dietary vitality consumption. This remuneration by physiological components to diminish the measure of vitality made accessible to these capacities has a tendency to reestablish vitality adjust in the body and advance survival, yet thusly weakens wellbeing. Extraordinary instances of dietary problems could incorporate anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Numerous competitors don't meet the strict criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa that are recorded by the American Psychiatric Association (1994) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fig. 2) yet will be that as it may, show comparable confused eating practices as a major aspect of the ternion disorder (Hobart and Smucker, 2000). The expression "anorexia athletica" or "disarranged eating" has been utilized to recognize neurotic anorexia and dietary issues related with preparing and games execution. The criteria for this incorporate hairsplitting, enthusiasm, intensity, high self inspiration, menstrual unsettling influences, and no less than one undesirable strategy for weight control, for example, fasting, retching, and utilization of eating regimen pills, intestinal medicines, or diuretics (Birch 2005). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as said above was inspected by the American Psychiatric Association (2000) to incorporate a more complete order of dietary issues not generally indicated (EDNOS) for competitors who don't meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa (Fig. 3). Practical hypothalamic amenorrhea Some clinical menstrual issue are evident to influenced ladies, for example, oligomenorrhea (menstrual cycles ≥ 35 days) and amenorrhea (no cycles for > 90 days), yet sub-clinical menstrual issue are not, e.g. luteal inadequacy and anovulation. Amenorrhea might be caused by an extensive variety of natural illnesses, hereditary variations from the norm, vitality lack, and stress. Therapeutic tests are required to analyze the etiology of amenorrhea so proper care can be offered to sufferers of the disorder (Manore et al. 2007). Amenorrhea that is identified with athletic preparing and weight vacillation is caused by changes in the hypothalamus which result in diminished levels of estrogen. Amenorrhea in the female competitor group of three, as indicated by (Hobart and Smucker, 2000), can be named essential or optional: Essential amenorrhea: no unconstrained uterine seeping in the accompanying circumstances: (a) by the age of 14 years without the advancement of optional sexual attributes, or (b) by the age of 16 years with generally typical improvement. Optional amenorrhea: the nonappearance of menstrual seeping in a female for (a) 6 months with essential consistent menses, or (b) a year with past oligomenorrhea. The sort of amenorrhea caused by low vitality accessibility related with dietary problems is delegated practical hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). In FHA, ovarian capacity is smothered by a strangely moderate recurrence of luteinising hormone (LH) beats in the blood. LH pulsatility is managed to a limited extent by neurological pathways beginning in specific neurons which can detect the accessibility of oxidisable metabolic fills (Wade and Jones, 2004). There are numerous reasons for menstrual disarranges, a significant number of which are not totally comprehended. Pulsatile arrival of luteinising hormone is diminished, which drives at first to luteal stage absconds. What's more, ladies with luteal stage deformities and amenorrhoea will have higher groupings of development hormone and cortisol and lower centralizations of leptin, insulin, and triodothyronine when contrasted and stationary ladies. These hormones are identified with digestion, which implies they are likewise identified with dietary and metabolic status. At the point when these hormones demonstrate that vitality accessibility is low over some undefined time frame, the menstrual cycle will be incidentally smothered with a specific end goal to monitor vitality (Birch 2005). Osteoporosis Osteoporosis, as characterized by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), is a malady described by low bone mass and microarchitectural decay of bone tissue, prompting improved skeletal delicacy and expanded danger of crack (Otis et al. 1997). This is the last segment of thefemale competitor triadwhich exists on a continuum from ideal bone wellbeing to osteoporosis and spotlights on bone quality, which comprises of BMD and bone quality. Bone quality alludes to bone turnover rates (resorption versus development, time for development of the new bone framework, microarchitecture or trabeculae, bone geometry and size, etc.).The failure to gauge bone quality right now abandons one portion of the condition for bone wellbeing unfilled and offers a clarification for why a few competitors may endure more breaks regardless of whether they have an indistinguishable poor bone thickness from their associates. Subsequently, double vitality x-beam absorptiometry (DXA) filters are utilized as a quantitative measure of bone wellbeing. (Gottschlich and Young, 2006). The World Health Organization (WHO) has built up rules on the most proficient method to arrange BMD utilizing double vitality radiographic absortiometry (DXA). Osteoporosis is characterized as BMD more prominent than 2.5 standard deviations beneath the mean of youthful grown-ups. Osteopenia is characterized by a BMD 1 to 2.5 standard deviations underneath the mean of youthful grown-ups (Kanis et al. 1994). As of late in any case, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) distributed an announcement (Lewiecki et al. 2004) that the WHO's rules for osteoporosis ought not really be utilized on solid premenopausal females. They propose rather that Z-scores ought to be utilized instead of T-scores for the determination of osteoporosis in this specific populace. As per Brunet (2005), there is an expanded hazard for crack in the elderly populace and in addition the youthful in conjunction with osteoporosis. A portion of the related hazard factors include: thyroid or corticosteroid prescriptions, smoking, a low calcium consume less calories, amenorrhea, a family history of osteoporosis, a stationary way of life, and an absence of hormone substitution treatment (HRT) post menopause (Bellantoni, 1996). As per the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (1991), sexual orientation can have an impact with females being 8 times more inclined to create osteoporosis than guys. The purpose behind this is a diminished standard bone mass and furthermore, an expanded level of bone assimilation related with menopause. Treatment The clinical doubt alone that somebody is experiencing female competitor set of three sh>GET ANSWER