Identify a social issue that health and/or human service organizations address in some capacity and discuss its current impact on group(s) affected by it. When selecting an area of focus, take into account broad topics that have been exhaustively scrutinized at the scholarly level, such as homelessness, mental health, aging, substance abuse, child welfare, etc. A good place to begin your search on an area of interest is the HHS A to Z Index. (Links to an external site.)
Describe the historical underpinnings of this issue. Factors to consider include: where and how it originated, pertinent events and their dates, and its current status.
Discuss specific factors contributing to the social issue. Consider environmental, social, political, and economic reasons that have attempted to explain why this issue persists.
Evaluate the impact of this social issue on the delivery of health and human service efforts by reviewing the scholarly literature and relevant professional/governmental resources for evidence of formal responses in the form of policy implementation, legislation, or Acts related to this social issue. What impact has this had on how health and/or human service organizations provide support in terms of direct practice with clients and within communities?
hrough stimulation of GABA receptors in the CNS, induce sleep or anaesthesia. Cholinergic mechanisms initiate REM sleep through stimulation of pontine neurones in the lateral portion of the pontine tegmentum and the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis. In animal experiments, injection of carbachol (acetylcholine agonist) induces instantaneous REM sleep. Recently, orexins (hypocretin) have been isolated in the hypothalamus and appear to be important in the control of REM sleep and appetite. CSF concentrations of orexins have been found to be very low in patients with narcolepsy. Influence of surgery and anaesthesia on sleep Anaesthesia and surgery can have a profound effect upon sleep. On the first night after surgery, sleep architecture is severely disrupted with little or no SWS and REM sleep. The light Stage 2 sleep is fragmented with frequent awakenings. The degree of disruption appears to be related to the severity of the surgical insult. The mechanism is unclear but it is probably due to a combination of the surgical stress and the effects of opioid analgesics. Recovery of lost SWS and REM sleep occurs on postoperative nights 2–5, being later after major surgery. This coincides with the nadir of postoperative pulmonary function and several studies have demonstrated marked hypoxaemia associated with the rebound of REM sleep. It was a logical step to attribute postoperative myocardial ischaemia, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism and cerebral disorder (delirium and cognitive impairment) to nocturnal hypoxaemia. However, a number of studies have failed to confirm these presumed associations, although this does not exclude the possibility that the hypoxaemia may be important in some individuals.>GET ANSWER