Read the article in Chapter 9 titled Bad Driving Stereotypes Hurt Women and Employers on page 260. Once you are done reading the article, post responses to the following:
1. Speculate about the manner in which male drivers may have treated the lone women, who ultimately quit PFG. How likely is it that she was helped or trained?
2. The CEO of PFG used one (or several) bad experiences with women drivers as rationale to avoid hiring any other women driver. Of the 44 men hired, is it likely that some of them were unsuccessful too? If so, why were different standards applied to male and female failures?
3. Suppose you were the new HR manager brought into PFG to clean up this concern. What are three things that you would put in place to help the company get on track?

Bad Driving Stereotypes Hurt Women and Employers Performance Food Group (PFG), a food service distributor in the Baltimore–Washington area, refused to hire women as delivery drivers. One year, PFG hired forty-four men and one woman as drivers. The company’s transportation manager told the lone woman driver that her performance would determine whether any other women would be hired as drivers. Unfortunately for all future women who hoped to be drivers at PFG, the woman had difficulties and quit. Later that same month, another woman (who would ultimately become the “charging party”) saw PFG’s advertised vacancy seeking delivery drivers and applied for the position. Although she had a commercial driver’s license, prior delivery experience, and met all posted criteria for the job, the charging party (CP) was told that PFG would not be hiring any women because of a past bad experience with a female driver. The manager instead offered CP a lower paying warehouse position, which she declined and 1nstead took her case to the EEOC.
During the investigation of the case, an e-mail corroborating the company’s position about not hiring women drivers surfaced. Thee-mail, from the company’s president and addressed to the transportation manager and HR manager, stated that “I think we have experience that tells us female drivers will not work out.” The president concluded that making offers to women as drivers was “inappropriate. “During the course of the lawsuit, PFG extended unconditional job offers to the CP and six other women applicants. PFG also agreed to develop defined, uniform, and objective job-related qualifications for the driver and helper positions and to implement consistent job application, recordkeeping, and record retention procedures. The company agreed to affirmatively recruit qualified females for driver and helper positions and paid $350,000 in damages to seven class members. In a very similar case, Ameripride Services, a linen supply company with nearly 200 facilities in the United States and Canada, discriminated against women applicants for customer service representative/route sales driver positions in Idaho. Ameripride’s advertisements stated that a Class B commercial license was required.

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.