Choose TWO of the posted articles and discuss what you have learned from reading the articles.
“Bariatric Surgery’s Role in Managing Type 2 Diabetes” (Links to an external site.)
“Diet and Nutrition for Liver Health” (Links to an external site.)
“Fasting Regimens for Weight Loss” (Links to an external site.)
“The Health Impact of the Weight Stigma”
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the devastating motor neuron disease that is characterized by progressive degeneration of both upper and lower motor neuron that control voluntary movement of body. The degeneration of the neurons seen in ALS result in muscle weakness, spasticity and atrophy of both cranial and spinal nerves muscle groups. Since there is often respiratory muscle involvement, aspiration pneumonia is the most common cause of death for the patients with ALS. At present, ALS is invariably fatal disease with no absolute cure and patients usually die within 3-5 years after the clinical onset of symptoms. The mean age of onset of ALS is between 55 and 65 years with slightly more prevalence in male (Male: Female ratio ~ 1.5:1) (1). Even though, incidence rate of ALS are different in different countries of the world, globally average annual incident rate is between 1.5 and 2.5 per 100,000 populations. There has been an increase in death rate of ALS and current international death rates for ALS have be close to 1 per 100,000 population per year(1). Currently, riluzole, an inhibitor of glutamate release, is the only disease modifying treatment available for the disease and can extends life only for couple of months (2,3). The etiology of ALS is currently unknown. However, approximately 10% of ALS patients have family history for ALS (Familial ALS;FALS) and remaining 90% of case occur sporadically (Sporadic ALS; SALS)(4). Although definitive evidence for environmental factor that cause ALS has remain mostly unknown, the evidence of genetic alternation that cause ALS has been increasing. Till date, only known cause of ALS is mutation in the gene. Mutations in more than 13 different types of genes have already been identified that can cause FALS. FALS is often a Mendelian inheritance with high penetrance, although most cases are autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, autosomal recessive pedigrees have also been reported (5,6). Even though, FALS are cause due to genetic alternation, FALS are indistinguishable from SALS form histopathological perspective and both the types’ presents with similar sign and symptoms, thus suggesting common intra-cellular processes that lead to the disease symptoms. Among those 13 different types of gene mutation that causes FALS, mutation in Transactive response DNA binding Protein 43kDa (TDP-43) gene is seen in approximately 4% of FALS and 2% of SALS (7). Transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) is a DNA/RNA-binding protein encode by the TARDBP gene on chromosome 1. TDP-43 is an ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein capable of shutting between the nucleus and cytoplasm (8). TDP43 is present in almost all the tissue of a body and have different roles in different tissues (9). Although the precise cellular function of TDP-43 is unknown, TDP-43 has been implicated in regulating of gene transcription (9),alternative exon splicing (10) and mRNA stability (11).>GET ANSWER