Betsy, a 79-year-old woman, was evaluated in your office. She lives with her 81-year-old husband who is her primary caregiver. He reports that approximately 2 years ago his wife began to lose interest in the things she enjoyed like shopping, cooking, and sewing. Gradually she became less interested in food and has lost 18 pounds in the past year. He has tried commercial nutritional supplements but has not been successful getting her to consume them. He stated he is not much of a cook but has been trying his best. He is frustrated and concerned about his wife’s weight loss and lack of appetite. He feels he is constantly trying to get her to eat. He does not have any family support as he and his wife never had children. Her medical evaluation revealed cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination. She does not appear to have any chewing or swallowing problems but has not seen a dentist in over three years. She takes one prescription medication for her arthritis. This couple is on a fixed income from social security. Her height is 5’1” and current weight is 100 pounds. Past weight was 118 pounds (1 year ago).
Answer the following questions about Betsy. Your responses should be phrased as though you were counseling the client. This means explaining your answers in detail. Please refer to the first question for an example of an acceptable response.
• As Betsy ages, how has her body composition changed from when she was 50 years old until now?
o Example Response: Betsy as you age your body will go through a number of changes such as X, Y, Z. For example, when you were 50 years old you may have been able to do X, but now at 79 you may be a little limited in doing that function.
• Based on Betsy’s scenario, what are at least two socioeconomic factors that are impacting her nutritional and health status?
• Calculate Betsy’s calorie needs (this requires you to use the Harris Benedict equation or the Mifflin St Jeor equation).
• Provide the percentages of macronutrients she should consume on a daily basis (i.e., 50% of total calories from carbohydrates)
• Based on Betsy’s scenario, design a 5-day meal plan for her that includes the proper portion sizes of each food (the portion sizes must adhere to the serving sizes set forth by the USDA: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/MyPlate). Each day of the meal plan must include a variety of foods. The meal plans must have breakfast, lunch, and dinner and at least 2 snacks. Also, include two micronutrients with the proper RDA’s that she needs to consume on a daily basis. Below is a template for you to use to design this meal plan.
Questions:
• What are the ethical concerns for both Betsy and her husband, given her own personal rights as well as his concerns over her well-being? Answer this question thinking more about the nutritional aspects of ethics. Examples of ethical concerns could be safety and abuse (for example, not feeding her the proper consistency of foods).
• As a nutrition professional, how would you address these concerns?
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Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

 

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.