Begin by identifying the parts of the rhetorical situation at play in Letter from Birmingham Jail:
o Identify the speaker: how do they establish their role and identity? What evidence do they provide to establish ethos, or their authority to speak on this subject?
o Likewise, identify their audience. Does the speaker highlight and shared interests or common ground between himself and the audience?
o Provide context: where is the speaker writing from, and at what point in time are they writing? Does the speaker mention why the issue he describes is urgent or timely (kairos)?
o What information is the speaker giving the audience—in other words, what do you take to be the message?
o How are the parts of the rhetorical situation are working together toward a purpose (goal, desired result)?
ustice was developed for 15 judges to resolve and enforce any legal decisions regarding resolution of conflict between nations and breach of international regulations (United Nations, 2009), which has evolved into the work of the International Court of Justice in the Hague (Baylis, Owens & Smith, 2011, p316). The Mandate Commission created regulations to allow the controlling and growth of developing nations under the power of developed states until they reached a point of self-determination, such as Australia in control of New Guinea (Hudson, 1980, p133). This work continues in the UN’s Trusteeship Council which assists this same process for a state moving to self-governance (Baylis, Owens & Smith, 2011, p316). Workers in the non-political agencies of the League actively employed their expertise in making influential changes in the fields of economics, health, law, finance, communications, refugees, labour and international relations (Ostrower, 1996, p113). The Economic Committee was responsible for resolving financial issues and reducing tariffs post WWI, as seen in their provision of a £26 million loan to the Republic of Austria to stabilise the budget of the newly-formed nation; while the Communications and Transit Department explored issues concerning maritime, rail, roads, power and communications (United Nations, 2009). The World Health Organisation for developing vaccines and preventing transmission of serious epidemics; the International Labour Organisation worked to improve working conditions for those in the workforce; and a substantial amount of prisoners-of-war were rescued after European conflict by a League Commission (United Nations, 2009). These activities all highlight the organisation’s work towards a better world for humanity and their relations with those in other nations, which continues to occur through the UN’s Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in implementing initiatives surrounding current global issues of human rights, health, urbanisation and refugees (Baylis, Owens & Smith, 2011, p316). In these ways, it can be seen how the work of the United Nations is a direct benefit of the underlying principles of the League of Nations. One must also consider the important lessons that can be drawn from the League as they have allowed for the development of international relations and can provide inspiration for effective peacekeeping. The League was beneficial for Australia itself as it notably advanced the nation’s involvement in international relations and politics, growing in governing stature without any significant pressure by the British influence to act beyond its desired level of involvement (Hudson, 1980, p186-7). For example, the League of Nations Unions promoted social movements despite the loss of public support for the League itself (Burgess, 2016), as leaders endeavoured to enhance public understanding of the League’s ideas, and build support to pressure the government in seeking peace (International School History, 2011). Hence, the League was significant as the annual assemblies inspired the government to take decisive action on important policies, knowledgeable people became aware of the diversified Australian foreign presence and of political circumstances in the surrounding world so that they could pursue areas of concern (Hudson, 1980, p189). The League allowed the development of Briand’s notion of a European Union to deal with European affairs and promote free trade and movement w>GET ANSWER