Aims and Objective
The aim of this assessment is to develop and evaluate data-driven models based on simple and multiple regression models. It allows students to develop
and demonstrate the application of the methods of ordinary least squares using Excel. The assessment will consist of statistical analysis, graphs, analysis
and written report explaining your results and findings. This should be no more than 1500 words and should be typed, using ICP house style.

Advice about writing the report:
 Use an introduction to set the aim of the report explaining the problem you are examining.
 Structure the main body which should comprise of a discussion of your results.
 Summarise the main regression results including the estimated regression line, estimated regression coefficients, standard errors, t-ratios, coefficient of
determination and present regression summary analysis.
 Carry out hypothesis tests on regression coefficients and interpret your findings.
 Explain your graphs of regression line and statistical results clearly in the report.
 Summarise your findings/conclusion at the end of the report.
 Answer all the questions.
 Use references based on all the literature you have used in compiling this report. Use APA referencing system.
 Pay attention to the overall presentation, structure and ensure logical development of ideas.

Assessment Criteria
 Demonstrating competence in the production and presentation of results from Microsoft EXCEL
 Understanding of methods employed,
 Providing appropriate analysis, explanation and interpretation of results,
 Structuring and presenting the report clearly,
LIBU105_Business Statistics_201801
Coursework Brief

Examine a time series data of demand for coffee in United Kingdom
from 1990 to 2016. As part of this assignment you will examine the market demand of
coffee model and evaluate the significance of variables influencing consumer behaviour.
In section A, use a simple two variable model to investigate the relationship between
demand and real price of coffee and real disposable income separately. You are expected to
analyse the regression results and comment on your findings.
In section B, you are expected to use multiple regression analysis and comment on your

The following data is provided in an excel file and can be downloaded. The table show a
time series data of demand for coffee, the real price of coffee, and the real personal
disposable income of the consumer over the years (1990 to 2016) in the United Kingdom.
Download the data from M.S Excel file in module and answer the following questions in part
A and B. Remember you are expected to conduct descriptive statistics and inference
statisitics for the both sections
Section (A) Simple Linear Regression Model [40 marks]
1). Plot a separate scatter diagrams of demand for coffee, Y, against, ?1, real price of coffee
and for demand for coffee Y, and real personal disposable income, ?2. Comment on kind of
relationship that exit?
2). Assuming that the demand for coffee, ?, and real price of coffee, ?1, are linked by a
linear relationship, estimate this regression by Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method, clearly
showing all your calculations (Excel can used for all the computations). [10 marks]
?? = ?(?? ) + ?? = ?? + ???1? + ?? [1]
3). Estimate the coefficient of determination – ?2 and comment on its value. Carry out an
appropriate test at 5% significance level for the explanatory power of the model.

LIBU105_Business Statistics_201801
4). Assuming that annual demand for coffee, ?, and real personal disposable income level,
?2 are linked by a linear relationship, estimate this regression by Ordinary Least Squares
(OLS) method using Excel:
?? = ?(?? ) + ?? = ?2 + ?2?2? + ?? [2]
5). Carry out an appropriate test at 5% significance level for the explanatory power of the
model, using the information in the regression summary output. [4 marks]
Section (B) Multiple Regression Analysis
It is reasonable to assume that demand for coffee depends on both the real price of coffee
and real disposable income. Use multiple regression analysis to investigate the relationship
between ? ??? ?1 ??? ?2 .
6). Estimate the following linear regression model using the data set:
?? = ?(?? ) + ? = ?3 + ?3?1 + ?4?2 ?? [3]
7). Compare the estimated coefficient for the real price of coffee, ?1, from the regression
equation (1) in section A and multiple regression equation (3) in section (B). Are they
different? If so, why? Explain your answer.
8). Tabulate the value of the coefficient of multiple determination, ?2 for the multiple
regression model? Explain the difference between the co-efficient of determination from
the first estimated linear regression (1) in section A and in section B – regression equation
9). Provide a conclusion based on all your findings in this assignments and hence comment
on the validity of the above regression models used in section (A and B). [10 marks]
10). What other variable(s) in your opinion could influence the demand for coffee in United
Kingdom. Provide a clear thought explanation for your reason.

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.